Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 856 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/22 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Do Objects Make Us? Many people in todays society are distressed greatly with ones rank in the social hierarchy; material possessions of all sorts seem to construct, shape, and style the lives of consumers all over the world. Consumers all over the world are becoming more and more demanding as more and more is being advertised. Many companies, such as Apple, often advertise months in advance for products creating commotion, attentiveness, and desire among the world. Stores, such as Old Navy, inspire consumers to shop at stores like theirs to feel pleased and satisfied with how much can be bought with such small amounts of money; when in reality, the consumers are spending money on their identity. In Ã¢â¬Å"On sale at Old Navy: Cool clothes for identical zombies! Ã¢â¬ , Damien Cave uncovers the fact that retailers all over the world, especially in such establishments as Old Navy and Ikea, have began to take up the lives of consumers in todays society and have created a great deal of trickery for making consumers believe they need more than they actually do. Naomi Klein states that consumers are being scammed. Many consumers are being judged by what they buy and where they buy it. Many people, such as Thomas Frank feel that stores such as Old Navy create almost a Ã¢â¬Å"mass cloning masked in a carnival of diversityÃ¢â¬ (Cave). That analysis may seem true but consumers should take into account that they are letting objects define who they are leading to a materialistic lifestyle. Nowadays, people, especially teens, are very concerned with appearance, prestige, and social position. Malls all over the world are jam packed with a great quantity of stores with the same goal as stores like Old Navy and Ikea. Stores such as Old Navy and Gap often pressure and persuade teens to feel the need to purchase Ã¢â¬Å"the next big thingÃ¢â¬ in order for them to be viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ by the rest of the society. Teens in todays society will p ay extra for clothes at one specific store to create a certain image for themselves. It is only human to want to feel accepted- and to even have the want to feel envied. Many people in todays world would rather be dressed nicely, put together and have some debt than wear shaggy, aged, out f date fashion. I am not excluding myself from this category, however; America has been shaped and molded to be consumers. This generation of american culture is letting the objects they buy define who they are as a person and citizen. In Ã¢â¬Å"iPad EnvyÃ¢â¬ , Rob Walker argues that people are often obsessed with the thought of being the first to have new state-of-the-art technology. Technology-seeking people like this are the first ones to pre-order advertised products even though they at risk of many complications and uncertainty of perfect product performance. These Ã¢â¬Å"technology-seekingÃ¢â¬ are letting objects such as technology to define them. They will pay more for similar techno logy to get the brand they want others to associate them with. Although Rob Walker states that these people should be thanked for their ignorance; consumers need to take a step back and look at the situation they are in. Consumers should ask themselves, Ã¢â¬Å"Do I really need this? Ã¢â¬ . Walker also brings up the fact that they are often guinea pigs for buying this technology and that they are often getting ripped off. Rob Walker stated in his article that an estimate of 200,000 people pre-ordered the Apple iPad paying $500- $700. Many people believe that like the iPhone, once the glitches and flaws are fixed, the products price will decrease. This approach of marketing helps keep more and more people interested in the products. I once heard someone say, Ã¢â¬Å"You do not own an Apple iPad, it owns youÃ¢â¬ . This saying proves that people sometimes get so wrapped up in material possessions, they soon are too crazed that their life is slowly but surely evolving into a materi alistic lifestyle. The point of these articles is for consumers to ask themselves: Ã¢â¬Å"Why do I need the most expensive and newest product? Ã¢â¬ Eventually there will be a time when that product will be Ã¢â¬Å"out of styleÃ¢â¬ and consumers will want the next best thing. These two articles are perfect examples of how the American society views Ã¢â¬Å"to needÃ¢â¬ versus Ã¢â¬Å"to wantÃ¢â¬ . To earn respect one should be a hardworking and loyal individual. The materials you own mean nothing without respectable morals and ideals. Our generation is under the impression that they need to consume more and more expensive products in rder to define a lasting self-image. However, this mind set will eventually be the downfall to self realization. If one is unable to form opinions on their own, they will never become an individual and will ultimately fail to create a self-image. If our generation continues to let object define them, it we will remain ill-fated to live material istic and acquisitive lifestyles. Works Cited Cave, Damien. Ã¢â¬Å"On sale at Old Navy: Cool clothes for identical zombies! Ã¢â¬ Salon. com. Salon Media Group, 22 Nov. 2000. Web 7 June 2010. Walker, Rob. Ã¢â¬Å"iPad EnvyÃ¢â¬ New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 2010. Web 30 June 2010. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Do Objects Make Us" essay for you Create order
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Gambling is an activity as old as civilization with as many varied forms and practices. From betting on cock fights to Presidential elections, gambling finds itself in a consistent battle with various cultures. No other gambling activity is as popular or as controversial as lotteries. In the United States, gambling had long been illegal. That is largely due to the Christian origins of most state legislation. Of which, the traditional view saw gambling as evil. Over time, more progressive individuals in the United States pursued relieving the strict laws on gambling. Gradually these measures succeeded in areas, but remained stalled in the traditionally religious southern states. In a renewed effort to expand into the wall of resistance. Lawmakers and lobbyists repackaged the lottery as an education lottery. A system in which the proceeds will benefit the school systems. Using this measure of marketing, they were successful in their goals. Now in most states there exist a state sanctioned lottery of some kind. There exist large amounts of empirical evidence establishing the argument that lotteries assist in upward wealth redistribution and disproportionately affects low income individuals. Furthermore, there are audits that have shown that the education portion of lotteries has been neglected. In some states, those audits have shown that not even a single dollar was given in support of the state education system. For the purposes of this paper, the basis will examine aShow MoreRelatedGambling Should be Legalized.1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGambling should be legalized What is gambling? According to www.dictionary.com gambling is taking a risk in the hope of gaining an advantage or a benefit. Gambling has been around for centuries and has been dated way back to 1492. People have been gambling in America ever since America was found. There are numerous underground cards clubs and casinos all over the country and in major cities. People gamble on everything: sports evens, dice, and cards. Even though people gamble every day in the UnitedRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legalized?971 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesToday, gambling is not allowed in some countries, but it is legal only in some areas in the United States. Some people are in favor of gambling because they find their entertainment in playing in casinos. Gambling is to take risks and play the games for money. Most people believe that gambling should not be legal because gambling activities do not benefit our communities and eventually causes: increased taxes, a loss of jobs and money. However, my opp onents believe that gambling and casinos areRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legalized?4078 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesShould Gambling Be Legalized? Over the past twenty or so years, great wealth and improved economic and social conditions have been promised to the communities that have embraced legalized gambling. However, with twenty years of experience it is time to look back and analyze whether this is true or not. It could easily be said that gambling is as American as apple pie. Gambling has shaped American history since its beginning. Lotteries were used by The First Continental Congress to help financeRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legalized? Essay958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGambling has become a major industry in the United States. In 2014 American casinos earned almost $38 billion, an increase of more than $5 billion over ten years (Scwhartz, 2015). Part of the increase comes from more states allowing commercial gambling. Since 2005 Florida, Kansas, Maryland, Ohio and Pennsylvania have all legalized casinos. However, gambling has negative side effects. In 2012 5.77 million problem gamblers existed in the country costing states $60.6 million (Marotta, Bahan, RynoldsRead MoreGambling in The Bahamas: Should it Be Legalized? 1821 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBahamians about their views on gambling. The referendum asked Bahamians if they supported the regularization and taxation of web shop gaming. As noted in the results, the mass of the Bahamian people voted no against the referendum. Today, the gambling issue has reawakened and Bahamians are now in a fight against the laws of their country. Several Bahamians believe that the law discriminates against Bahamians because it prohibits Bahamians from owning and legally gambling in casinos within in their homelandRead MoreShould Sports Be Legalized?978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSome jobs would also be created if online gambling was legalized. Many of the existing online gambling sites would move their operations to the United States, while other sites wou ld be newly created in here. The jobs created would range from computer programmers to customer service jobs (Rousu). Our economy is always looking for new jobs to decrease the unemployment rate. This is a great way to lower unemployment and increase the economy at the same time. In Canada, the provinces experience additionalRead MoreLegalized Gambling Essay919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLegalized Gambling Have you ever wagered on a game? If so you were gambling and should have been fined. Gambling should be legalized in the state of Florida. The lawmakers, who have decided that it is evil for you and me to gamble, have justified it as a means to scam billions from citizens in order to compensate for their mismanagement of tax money. First they waste what they collect in taxes and then recover the wasted billions with gambling scams to get more, much more. AddingRead More Gambling Addiction Essay1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGambling Addiction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gambling addiction is an issue found in numerous areas where gambling is legal. People who are addicted to gambling, also know as problem gamblers, face many health risks including depression, suicidal thoughts, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, migraine and anxiety in addition to marriage breakdown, problems at work and bankruptcy (9). About 2 percent of adults are thought to be problem gamblers (1). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society this costly addiction is not often considered toRead Morelegalizing gambling983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Legalizing Casino Gambling in Texas Persuasive Speech Outline Legalizing Casino Gambling in Texas Specific Purpose Statement: To persuade my class about why legalizing casino gambling in Texas is for the better. Thesis Statement: Legalizing casino gambling in the state of Texas would enhance society and will be beneficial for the entire state. Organizational Pattern: Problem-Solution Introduction I. Did you know that gambling generates more revenue thanRead MoreGambling Outline Essay912 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNick Cortese Research Outline Gambling Thesis: Gambling in society has detrimental effects to people in United States. Topic: I. There are certain types of gambling that people should be aware of. A. Gambling is any bet you make that involves chance, a stake, and there is a pay-off. Ã¢â¬Å"Here is the definition of gamble Ã¢â¬â to play at any game of chance for stakes, to bet on an uncertain outcomeÃ¢â¬ (Brown). Ã¢â¬Å"The following three elements must be present for something
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
PART III: PRACTICES OF SECURITISATION OF ISLAM AND MUSLIMS IN THE ETHIOPIAN STATE 3.1 Introduction In the previous parts the discussions on the theoretical framework of the securitisation theory as it applies to Islam and Muslims, and the international perspectives of governmentality of Muslims as well regional categorizations as the illustrations of governmentality have presented. In the subsequent sections discussions turn to the securitisation of Islam, and governmentality of Muslims in the Ethiopian state by thoroughly examining the existing challenges for the attainment of Muslim rights despite the changes in the political and social structure, and the disquieting narratives of the Ã¢â¬Ëglobal war on terrorÃ¢â¬â¢ by zooming its impacts toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To a great extent confined in the northern highlands, and bit by bit creating xenophobic states of mind toward the outside world, Ethiopia was a nation shrouded with legends, making ways ready for expanded interest among its European co-religionistsÃ¢â¬âwho made vivid accounts of the Prester John, a myste rious Christian kingdom in Africa (Beckingham Hamilton, 1996). Like Christianity, Islam made an unexpected arrival in Ethiopia in 615 with the first Islamic hijira sometime called Axumitehijra. Constituting a place of refuge for the persecuted early Muslim believers, the event was essential for building strong relations between Ethiopia and the rising Islamic religion. The Prophet s gratitude was communicated in the expression; leave the Abyssinians alone, as long as they do not take offensive, and Ethiopia was therefore perceived as a sovereign state, regarded and excluded from military campaigns (Carmichael, 1996). While Christians and Muslims in Ethiopia originally remained relatively standing apart from each otherÃ¢â¬âwith the Christian kingdom restricted toward the northern highlands and Islam venturing into the south-eastern parts of today s EthiopiaÃ¢â¬âcontact expanded in the thirteenth century with a gradually conflictual patterns. The hostile relationship peaked in 1529 with the conquest of Imam Ahmed
A critical viewer is always beaten by a critical reader. This opinion has changed however, after seeing the movie and afterwards reading the story of Ã¢â¬Å"Gravestone Made of WheatÃ¢â¬ and the movie Ã¢â¬Å" Sweet LandÃ¢â¬ which is derived from the same story. The charming love story tells of the deep love between the two main characters in the story, Inge and Olaf. The story tells of how they fought for the love that they had for each other. The film gives a vivid scenery of the story and gives justice to the idea of the writer. It shows how people could discriminate in terms of origin and culture. However, the depiction of Olaf as a man who will stand by his woman until the end justified this kind of mentality among almost all peoples from differentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It disturbs the mind, it motivates insightful ideas to make questions as to why people behave the way they do and why things happen unexpectedly. The crafty transposition from short story to fi lm was so much so that the cinematic effects and techniques were strategically presented. The film is just as colorful as the mind of its director. The important value that the writer wanted to impart to his readers never missed a point in the film. In fact, the director made it a point to make it the most exciting part of the film. Despite their having been married, the aloofness of Olaf and Inge to each other is what makes the story totally distinct from other love stories. And yet, how did this love become so powerful? The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is as powerful as well, because he was able to justify this through the twists and turns in the events of the story. The conclusion of the story gives the reader and the viewer something to ponder upon. This is where the power of the writer really came out. People generalize. They are judgmental. But there are exceptional loves as well. Something that begins morally, intellectually, and in reality, spiritually. The story just made the reactor wonder if it is still possible for people to practice the highest degree of restraint and morality towards each other, but still choose to be together in theShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast Paper1905 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Compare and Contrast Paper on Christian Counseling Methods By: John M Shisler For: CCOU 201 Ã¢â¬â D10 Summer 2014 Introduction Christian counselors are doing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work and must use the Spiritual Gifts with which they were blessed to be able to reach their clients. While it may be difficult to always reach a client right away, when a Christian counselor can be effective and help someone understand what God desires for them, it can be a very fulfilling and satisfying experience. But the ChristianRead MoreCompare and Contrast Theories Paper2924 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Compare and Contrast Theories Paper Ashlie Wilson EDUC 624 May 24, 2015 Abraham Maslow suggested that for students to have energy for learning, their basic personal needs must be met.(Jones, V., Jones L. 2013) Maslow described human needs as ordered in a prepotent hierarchy (McLeod, S. 2007).The hierarchy of human needs model was shown that basic human needs started at the lower level, general needs, and proceeded upward to more complex needs, and can onlyRead MorePolicy Analysis Iii- Compare and Contrast Paper809 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolicy Analysis III- Compare and Contrast Paper Brandy Alston University of Phoenix Criminal Justice Management Theory and Practice CJA/464 Professor Leroy Hendrix October 10, 2013 Policy Analysis III- Compare and Contrast Paper The reason for policy analysis reflects around the assessment of policies from the government by critiquing the failures and successes. 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However, some preferRead MoreIn this compare and contrast paper I will highlight the differences and commonalities1167 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Compare and Contrast Paper Jeremiah Barwick Liberty CCOU 201 In this compare and contrast paper I will highlight the differences and commonalities between Larry CrabbÃ¢â¬â¢s biblical model of counseling, theories, and techniques of Rodgerian theory called RodgersÃ¢â¬â¢ Client-Centered Therapy (RCCT), Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). All of these theories are a form of psychotherapy. Couselors today use techniques such as pharmacologicalRead MoreCompare Contrast Paper of a Service vs Manufacturing Business1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDeZURIK are alike all other businesses in the sense that they both take their own unique approach in running their business in contrast to companies in similar fields. 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Essay on Jealousy By William Shakespeare s Othello Essay Jealousy In Othello Jealousy brings out the worst in people and that is particularly true with leaders, given their far-reaching authority and influence. When jealousy arises, leaders lose focus, respect, and their leadership abilities suffer as do their organization skills. These negative aspects of jealousy are present in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic hero Othello, and was the cause of his ultimate downfall. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello, jealousy is a central theme and tragic flaw possessed by the main characters Iago, Othello, and Roderigo. This intrinsic characteristic is the basis for conflict and tragedy throughout the course of the play and is the cause of the deaths of innocent individuals. Jealousy is a theme introduced at the beginning of Othello by Roderigo, a wealthy man infatuated with Desdemona. RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s infatuation first manifests itself when he hires Iago to assist him in obtaining a possible courtship with Desdemona. As Iago informs Roderigo of Desdemona and OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s wedlock, he sparks a flicker of jealousy in Roderigo. RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy drives him to notify Brabantio, DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, about the marriage by ridiculing Othello for his race: Ã¢â¬Å"As partly I find it is Ã¢â¬â that your fair daughter / At this odd-een and dull watch oÃ¢â¬â¢th night / Transported with no worse nor better guard / But with a knave of common hire, a gondolier / To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor / If this be known to you and your allowance / We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs.Ã¢â¬ (1.1. 123-129). Roderigo uses his knowledge of BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s racism as an attempt to obliterate Desdemona and OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship by emphasizing the fact that Othello is a Moor and Desdemona is fair-skinned. Roderigo is fully aware of the rage and di. .ed in the extremeÃ¢â¬ (5.2. 402-406) Othello realizes how much his jealousy was able to consume him, and agrees he is no longer suitable as the general of the Venice army. Once Othello is aware of the fact that Desdemona was in fact pure and did not have an affair with Cassio, he is overwhelmed with grief. Othello states that he can no longer live without his true love Desdemona, as life would not be the same without her. Jealousy resulted in the downfall of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic hero Othello, as the actions that manifested from his jealous behaviour caused him to lose the single most important person in his life, Desdemona. Jealousy controlled the behaviour and thoughts of characters Roderigo, Iago, and Othello, causing them to act irrationally. Jealousy consumed the virtues and reputation Othello had worked hard to develop and led to his personal and professional ruin.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
John Singleton Copleys Watson and the Shark Essay One interpretation of Watson and the Shark that takes some precedence over the rest was appended to the painting itself, probably by its owner. The label describes the painting as shewing that a high sense of INTEGRITY and RECTITUDE with a firm reliance on an over ruling PROVIDENCE are the sources of public and private virtue honours and success (see Miles 165). Watsons personal history, and his painful rise from an orphan to a major political force, adequately reflects this sentiment (see Masur 427). Other interpretations of the painting are rather comprehensively outlined by Louis Masur (437-54). In terms of the art theory of the day, as mentioned above,Ã CopleyÃ painted a historical scene that would invite its viewers to alter their conception of what constituted history (Masur 437). The altered sense of history is democratized, allowing the viewer to see art as reflective of her or his reality and as potentially participatory (I too could be one of those noble seamen!). Of course, this is only the most rudimentary, and perhaps reductive, interpretation of the work. Masur further delineates approaches to the painting as loosely categorized as philosophical, political, and racial (439). The philosophical reading is based on religious connotations. Citing such sources as Raphael s The Miraculous Draught of Fishes and St. Michael and the Dragon, and Rubens The Miraculous Draught of Fishes and Jonah Thrown into the Sea, critics have generally read the painting as a treatment of salvation or of the struggle between man and nature. (5) Politically, the painting evokes the American Revolution. In social interpretations, critics have found the prominent placement of the black sailor in the painting to be one of the most important representations of a black person in all of eighteenth-century Western art (Masur 446). According to Masur, such readings may be alternately emblematic ofÃ Copleys racism, in that the black sailor is merely a token presence, or ofÃ Copley s statement on black identity and liberty (446; see also 446-49). Although much has been written on Melvilles familiarity with classical and European art, as they comprise the bulk of his personal collection and literary references, Melville displayed a considerable interest in American arts and artists (Robillard 26). Given Melvilles interest in art, it is very likely that he saw and took appreciative note ofÃ Copleys Watson and the Shark as it hung in exhibition at the Boston Athenaeum in December of 1850. Biographical evidence places Melville at the Athenaeum while Watson and the Shark was on display. According to the Boston Evening Transcript of 20 December 1850,Ã Copleys painting was still on exhibition since its arrival in May. (6) Jay Leydas Melville Log reports the following event in that year, occurring shortly after the Transcript notice: BOSTON DECEMBER 30 Someone in the augmented Shaw household does some reading on M s current subject; charged on Shaws membership at the Boston Athenaeum: An Account of the Arctic Regions, with a History and description of the Northern Whale Fishery, by William Scoresby. (7) The 1850 exhibition of Watson and the Shark at the Boston Athenaeum coincided with Melvilles move from New York City to Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Melvilles wife and son spent Thanksgiving of that year in Boston in order to visit with her extended family, the Shaws. Being within striking distance of Boston, Melville apparently took advantage of his proximity to the Athenaeum to avail himself of its library collection. Borrowing on the account of his father-in-law, a founding member of the Boston Atheneaum, had been a habit of Melvilles well established by this point. Leydas Melville Log cites similar borrowings from the Boston Athenaeum since at least March of 1846. (8) Trips to the Athenaeum when Melville was in Boston seemed to be a common occurrence: When Melville and his wife visited the Shaw family in Boston during the 1840s, it would seem likely that he might take these occasions to visit the art exhibits at the Boston Athenaeum. [l he may have known quite a few details about the art collection through the exhibition catalogs regularly issued by the Athenaeum (Robillard 27). Although there is no direct documentary evidence as to whether or not Melville himself made the December 30 visit to the Athenaeum, it seems likely that he was the one to have borrowed such a book. There is little doubt that Melville knew the Scoresby text. Indeed, he cites it as an example of cetological accuracy: f the Right Whale, the best outline pictures are in Scoresby (NN MD, 265). Melville also tellingly comments here, it is by such pictures only that you can derive anything like a truthful idea of the living whale seen by his living hunters (265-66). Given that Melvilles eventual use of Scoresby s book should hinge on its pictorial content, the author may well have noticed the dramatic sea scene depicted in Watson and the Shark, which was hanging in the Athenaeum when he borrowed the Scoresby book. Indeed, Melville had a singular connection to both the Athenaeums art collection andÃ Copleythrough his own family. According toÃ JohnÃ Gretchko, Allan Melvill purchase a share in May or June of 1807 becoming a founding member, and Melvilles grandfather or uncle Thomas Melvill, it is unclear which, purchased a miniature painting there in 1828. (9) That same year, a painting of Melvilles grandfather, Major Thomas Melvill, hung in the Athenaeums yearly exhibition. Hershel Parker notes that, for Melville, family portraits became objects of intense reverence and curiosity. (10) Therefore, it seems credible that Melvillewho thought of his forebears as those in whose veins coursed the blood of the earl of Melville House and the blood of remoter noble and even royal ancestors (Parker 59)would have felt some abiding familial connection to the Boston Athenaeum. Moreover, Melvilles family also had a specific connection toÃ Copley. In 1762,Ã CopleyÃ painted a watercolor-on-ivory miniature of Melville s great-great-aunt Deborah Scollay Melvill. (11) Yet Melville also had a particular connection of his own toÃ CopleyÃ at this point in his life. In August 1850, more than midway into his composition of Moby-Dick, Melville wrote Hawthorne and his Mosses, a review of Hawthornes Mosses from an Old Manse. It appeared in Evert Duyckinck s Literary World on 17 and 24 August 1850. Within Hawthornes book is the short tale Drownes Wooden Image. Though Melville does not mention it in his review of Mosses, could well have influenced Melvilles thinking (Robillard 15). As Rita Gollin andÃ JohnÃ Idol have noted, one of the main characters in this tale isÃ JohnÃ SingletonÃ Copley, whom Hawthorne characterizes as a man of good will, sensitivity, and insight. (12)Ã Copley, in the tale, interacts with Drowne (another historical personality) as Drowne creates his life s masterpiece: a ships figurehead in the form of a beautiful woman. One can imagine that the object Drowne is crafting in the story would strike a chord with Melville, never far removed in thought from his seafaring days. Melville, ever the student of art, would most likely have stowed this fact away for future reference. Also, Melville greatly respected Hawthorne, who has dropped germinous seeds within my soul (Melville Hawthorne, 146), (13) Thus, it is most probable that Melville took special notice of Hawthornes inclusion of the New England artist in the story. Hawthorne, too, provided Melville with a connection to the Boston Athenaeum. Hawthorne saw paintings, sketches and statues in the Athenaeum and read reviews of the annual Athenaeum exhibits (Gollin and Idol 23) as early as 1836. Arlin Turner notes that Hawthorne borrowed numerous books from the Athenaeum library, and wanted more access than he received, as he did not have membership in the Boston Athenaeum library to enable him to check out books (14) as did Melville. The Athenaeum was liable to be at least one point of common ground between Melville and Hawthorne, one that they could speak of when they saw one another, as they did throughout the composition of Moby-Dick. Hawthorne and Melville had a shared link in their patronage of the Boston Athenaeums library; they both had an abiding interest in the visual arts; and a nautical painting by a famous artist featured in Hawthornes Mosses, recently reviewed by Melville, was hanging in the gallery of that very library. The convergenc e of all these factors suggest that the exhibition ofÃ Copleys Watson and the Shark at the Athenaeum in 1850 would have been a very attractive draw for Melville. His family, social, and artistic connections to the Athenaeum make it likely that the gallery and library were part of his routine when in Boston. The evidence strongly suggests that Melville visited the Boston Athenaeum while Watson and the Shark was on exhibition, a painting connected to the authors art, his friends, and his family. If he did see the work, there is little doubt that it is an image that would have stuck with him as he pondered Moby-Dick. And if so, it is likely thatÃ Copleys painting played into Melville s vast use of art in Moby-Dick. How would Melville interpret Watson and the Shark and how would that interpretation of the painting affect the writing of Moby-Dick? Obviously, the answers to these questions are a matter of some speculation. However, an argument by analogy to Melvilles use of other pictorial sources would serve well here. The most ambitious model of such a project to date is Robert Wallaces dissection of the relationship between Melville and painter J. M. W. Turner in Melville and Turner: Spheres of Love and Fright. Wallace s argument is that Melville made Turner his own in the process of writing Moby-Dick (Melville and Turner 1). Wallace explores how Melvilles exposure to art (and to Turner) through reading, conversation, and visits to galleries (Melville and Turner 75) came to fruition in Moby-Dick. Wallace then identifies Melvilles personal appropriation of art and artists in the context of the American culture of which he was a part (Melville and Turner 309). Moving farther afield, Wallace exami nes the undocumented spiritual connection between Melville and Turner as they both dive deeply into the imaginative spheres of love and fright, and display their essential brotherhood (Melville and Turner 477). It is in this last vein that an educated guess can be made about Melvilles perception of Watson and the Shark. That Melville would have been impressed byÃ Copleys painting, had he seen Watson and the Shark, is fairly safe to assume. The visceral mood of the piece would find an affinity in Melvilles artistic, postpicturesque (Wallace Melville and Turner, 479) sensibilities. Masur anticipates this connection when he finds that the painting, to apply classical terms commonplace in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century criticism of the arts and used in another context decades later by Herman Melville, who knew something of sailors and sea creatures, instructed through terror and pity (438-39). Roger Stein, in his publication of the Whitney Museums exhibition, Seascape and the American Imagination, also finds this kind of connection between Melville andÃ Copleys painting of Watsons misfortune. (15) Stein notes that the figures of Watson and the shark remind us of the possibility, as Herman Melville would later put it, that the invisible spheres were formed in fright (20). That paintings with whic h Melville was impressed were woven into his fiction is an established fact, as Wallace amply demonstrates. Therefore, as it is likely that Melville sawÃ Copleys Watson and the Shark at the Boston Athenaeum, the painting may have in some way informed the writing of Moby-Dick. At the very least, Melville probably would have recognized inÃ Copleys painting the sources from which the artist drew, given Melvilles steeping in the Old Masters. He may well have recognized that the arrangement of figures images of men in boats, such as Rubenss and Raphaels The Miraculous Draught of Fishes and Rubenss Jonah and the Whale (Miles 165). This connection to depictions of biblical stories of seafarers would jibe quite nicely with Melvilles composition of Moby-Dick since the book was pervasively influenced by the Bible (Parker 699). Additionally, Melville would likely have been drawn to the figures themselves. The figure in the bow of the boat with the boathook is obviously reminiscent of harpooner on a whaleboat. The racial mix represented in the painting also would have spoken to Melvilles own experiences. However, as opposed to recent readings ofÃ Copleys painting as a self-conscious attempt to probe the meaning of race (Masur 448), Melville would more likely have seen a reflection of his own experience on shipboard. While the Pequod may at times appear as a somewhat idealized view of racial harmony aboard a whaleship, Briton Cooper Busch argues that in reality black and white, foreign and American, foremast hands were forced to tolerate each others existence in such circumstances, simply in order to survive. (16) At the very least,Ã Copleys choices for the seamen reflect the heterogeneity common among contemporary ships crews. Indeed,Ã CopleyÃ himself strove for accuracy and realism (Masur 447) in th e painting. Accordingly, Melville may well have been struck by its verisimilitude. Copleys painting most directly engages the question of the relationship between the black sailor and Watson in the painting to the monkey-rope episode between Ishmael and Queequeg. At first glance, in that the black sailor in the painting grasps the rope, but Watson does not, the work may signal a disconnection between the races. However, the rope linking the black sailor and Watson is clearly the source of the boys salvation in the painting. Whether read in a context of racial politics or as a meditation on religious or secular salvation, the scene in the painting makes a strong link between the rescuer and the victim. Howard Vincent has similarly argued that the monkey-rope in Moby-Dick becomes a superb symbol of human brotherhood. (17) The Siamese connexion with a plurality of mortals (NN MD, 320) that Ishmael comes to recognize in his own connection to Queequeg is equally represented in the black seamans connection to Watson. The association betweenÃ Copleys painting and the monkey-rope episode becomes most closely twined in Melvilles following description of the shark episode in Moby-Dick: And right in among those sharks was Queequeg; who often pushed them aside with his floundering feet. Accordingly, besides the monkey-rope, with which I now and then jerked the poor fellow from too close a vicinity to the maw of what seemed a particularly ferocious sharkhe was provided with still another protection. Suspended over the side in one of the stages, Tashtego and Daggoo continually flourished over his head a couple of keen whale-spades, wherewith they slaughtered as many of the sharks as they could reach. (NN MD, 321) The accumulation of details seems too much to be simply coincidence. Like Watson of the painting, Queequeg is among those sharks. Watson has lost a foot to the shark while Queequeg pushed them aside with his floundering feet. A rope, controlled aboard ship, has been tossed to the helpless Watson to save him much as Ishmael jerked the poor fellow from the maw of shark. The image of the sharks open maw itself is found prominently inÃ Copleys painting. Also, just like the two would-be rescuers who reach over the gunwales for Watson in the painting, Tashtego and Daggoo are suspended over the side. Finally, the seaman brandishing the boathook over the shark inÃ Copleys painting is in the same relative position as Tashtego and Daggoo as they continually over his head flourished a couple of keen whale-spades. This presentation of the shark in Moby-Dick closely parallels readings of the shark in Watson and the Shark. The shark inÃ Copleys work, on the strictly narrative level, is the animal that attacked Brook Watson. So too, in Moby-Dick, are the sharks a simple reality, a natural by-product of the whaling industry. But, the shark inÃ Copleys painting has also been read in a religious context of resurrection and salvation (Jaffe 18), as Leviathan a sea-dragon associated with the day of salvation when the sea-dragon will be killed (18) and the soul resurrected. The shark, then, is the obstacle to salvation. Old Fleeces famous Sermon to the Sharks also represents the shark as an obstacle to salvation. As they are by natur wery Woracious (NN MD, 295), the sharks animal voraciousness keeps them from taking Fleeces meaning. Of course, this equation has a human counterpart in Stubb, who fails to heed the very sermon he compels Old Fleece to make as he indulges in his own gluttony. It is this voracious, bestial nature of the shark that is most commonly read by critics. Not much critical appreciation of the shark episode goes beyond Vincents early analysis of Stubbs banquet and the sharks feast ironic commentaries on each other, a grotesque antiphonal (233). The parallel between the sharks unmitigated ferocity and humanitys failure to govern the animal in itself has been widely acknowledged by Melville scholars. (18) Hill presents the idea nicely by asking if Melville suggesting that our own sharkish natures make self-governance and the consequent release of the angelic just as remote as in the animal kingdom? (257). Such sentiments are certainly suggested in the philosophical readings of Watson and the Shark. It is the shark that Watson needs deliverance from, just as Stubb does, whether he realizes it or not. It is a near certainty that Melville sawÃ Copleys Watson and the Shark at the Boston Athenaeum. The evidence points to Melville having a familiarity with the painting. Melville was deeply involved in the visual arts. This involvement is clear throughout his writing, and certainly in Moby-Dick. During the composition of Moby-Dick, Melville encountered a fictionalÃ CopleyÃ in his reading of Hawthornes Mosses, a work by which he was intensely moved. Melville had connections, both familial and through Hawthorne, with the Boston Athenaeum, where the painting was displayed during Melvilles writing of Moby-Dick. Documentary evidence suggests Melvilles presence at the Boston Athenaeum during the exhibition of Watson and the Shark in 1850. Finally, there are details both narrative and figurative in the text that are strongly tied to narrative and thematic details in the painting. This accumulation of the evidence strongly suggests that Melville knewÃ Copleys Watson and the Shark and b rought that knowledge to bear in the drafting of Moby-Dick.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Magdalena And Balthasar The letters of Magdalena and Balthasar give us a glimpse into the lives of a merchant couple in 16th century Nuremberg, Germany. Renaissance Nuremberg was a city much like Florence, full of culture and based on a strong merchant economy. The only difference was that while Florence was predominately Catholic, Nurembergs residents were Protestant (Patrouch, 2-13-01). In this city, the plague ended the lives of thousands and this couple was alive to see the suffering it created. This caused two reactions in them. One was that of fear; a fear that they too would die from the plague and so they are both very careful with their health. The second was a vision of a God that could both punish and save them from damnation. In the letters of this book we discover how a Protestant couple in Renaissance Germany dealt with the illness and suffering that their loving God had bestowed upon them. Between 1560 and 1584, Nuremberg lost thousands of its residents to an epidemic that was sweeping Europe. This was the reason for the couples preoccupation with purgative health care methods such as periodic bleedings, salve solutions, and bathing and drinking spring waters such as those of Lucca, Italy. In the introduction of this book, Ozment states that Magdalena and Balthasar are devotees of purgative medicine, in search of effective prophylaxis against the ragging maladies and diseases of their age (Ozment, 14). Due to this fear of sickness and death, Magdalena and Balthsar are fanatics of the medical remedies of the time. Through these letters we can see that religion played a major role in the lives of the couple. As we read in the introduction, they seem to have a love-hate relationship with God, their Afflicter and Redeemer (Ozment, 14). Throughout their letters we will discover the strong beliefs that this couple had in the medicine of their time and the God that they both feared and loved. Magdalena is the one who was exposed most to this deterioration that was occurring in Nuremberg. Numerous times she remorsefully mentioned the news of a lost friend or relative in her letters to Balthasar. Once while Balthasar was in Altdorf Magdalena wrote, I must report to you a death among our friends in every letter I write; I wish it were not so (M. Paumgartner, 113). Even though this is a happy time in their lives because she has just found out that they will have a child, they are not sure whether this is a blessing or a curse, for now there is one more of them at risk. And later we learn that this epidemic did not discriminate the old or young and even little Balthasar dies at the young age of 10. While away in Ausburg, Balthasar receives news that little Balthasar was very ill. Magdalena wrote, I long for you under this cross which God has made us bear by afflicting little Balthasar. She goes on to say, May eternal God add his grace to the medicine, so that little Balthasar will have recovered by the time you return. (M. Paumgartner, 98). This is a perfect example of the vision the couple had of God. Even though He was the merciless God that had bestowed such a horrible sickness on their boy, He was also the all- powerful God that could remove it and restore the health of their only son. This is the love-hate relationship that Ozment mentions in his introduction. The couple loved God and constantly praise him throughout their correspondence but they never fail to recognize that He is the one who has created such suffering for them. In a letter to Balthasar while away in Frankfurt Magdalena writes how little Balthasar definitely has a deformity in his neck. She says that she has just taken him to the doctor and he believes there is nothing that will cure him, the only thing that will help is some salve and she goes on to say, May God help make it work! (M. Paumgartner, 90). Statements like this display to us hope that Magdalena and Balthasar had in both God and medicine. In a letter from Balthasar to Magdalena, he says