Saturday, August 31, 2019

Home Reading Report

Save to Officio Citizenship and Immigration Canada Citoyennete et Immigration Canada PROTECTED WHEN COMPLETED – B PAGE 1 OF 4 SCHEDULE A BACKGROUND / DECLARATION The principal applicant, his or her spouse or common-law partner, if applicable, and all dependent children aged 18 years or older listed in the application for permanent residence must complete their own copy of this form. If there is not enough space to provide all the necessary information, attach to this form a separate sheet of paper with further details.Print your name at the top of each additional sheet and indicate the form's title and the number of the question you are answering. Before you start completing this form, make enough photocopies for your needs. You can also print all or part of this form from our Web site at www. cic. gc. ca. BEFORE YOU START, READ THE INSTRUCTION GUIDE TYPE or PRINT in black ink Indicate whether you are The principal applicant 1. Your full name Family name The spouse, common-law partner or dependent child aged 18 years or older of the principal applicant 6.Have you, or, if you are the principal applicant, any of your family members listed in your application for permanent residence in Canada, ever: YES NO a) been convicted of a crime or offence in Canada for which a pardon has not been granted under the Criminal Records Act of Canada? b) been convicted of, or are you currently charged with, on trial for, or party to a crime or offence, or subject of any criminal proceedings in any other country? c) made previous claims for refugee protection in Canada or at a Canadian visa office abroad, in any other country or countries, or with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)? ) been refused refugee status, an immigrant or permanent resident visa (including a Certificat de selection du Quebec (CSQ) or application to the Provincial Nominee Program) or visitor or temporary resident visa, to Canada or any other country? e) been refused admission to , or ordered to leave, Canada or any other country? f) been involved in an act of genocide, a war crime or in the commission of a crime against humanity? Date of birth Town/City of birth Country of birth Date of death, if deceased 5. Year Month Day Tito Given name(s) Roderick 2. Your full name written in your native language or script (e. . , Arabic, Cyrillic, Chinese, Korean, Japanese characters or Chinese commercial/telegraphic code) Roderick M. Tito 3. 4. Your date of birth Year Month Day 1972 01 17 Personal details of your father Family name Tito Given name(s) Felix 1 9 1 2 1 2 0 8 Danao City, Cebu Philippines Year Month Day g) used, planned or advocated the use of armed struggle or violence to reach political, religious or social objectives? h) been associated with a group that used, uses, advocated or advocates the use of armed struggle or violence to reach political, religious or social objectives? ) been member of an organization that is or was engaged in an activity that is part of a pattern of criminal activity? j) been detained, incarcerated or put in jail? 1 9 9 8 Personal details of your mother Family name at birth k) had any serious disease or physical or mental disorder? Tito If your answer to any of these questions is YES, provide details below. Given name(s) Fedilinda Date of birth Town/City of birth Country of birth Date of death, if deceased 1 9 4 7 0 4 2 7 Year Month Day Danao City, Cebu Philippines Year Month DayThis form is made available by Citizenship and Immigration Canada and is not to be sold to applicants. IMM 5669 (07-2011) E (DISPONIBLE EN FRANCAIS – IMM 5669 F) Save to Officio PAGE 2 OF 4 7. Education Give the number of years of school you successfully completed for each of the following levels of education. Elementary/ primary school Secondary/ high school University/ college Trade school or other post secondary school 6 4 1. 5 Give full details of all the secondary and post secondary education (including university, coll ege and apprenticeship training) you have had.From To Type of certificate or Name of institution City and country diploma issued Y M M Y 2 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 3 1 9 9 7 1 2 1 9 9 7 1 2 1 9 9 7 0 6 1 9 9 7 0 7 BMC Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. BMC Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. MIAP Training and Service Center / TESDA Region VII Technical Education and Skills Development Authority ( TESDA Region VII ) Mandaue Technical Institute Mabolo Cebu City, Philippines Mabolo Cebu City, Philippines Cebu City, Philippines Cebu City, Philippines 1 9 9 4 0 6 1 9 9 5 0 4 8. Personal historyMandaue City, Cebu Philippines Shielded Metal Arc Welding NC II ( 360 hrs. ) Industrial Pipefitting NC II ( 160 hrs. ) Industrial Pipefitting Course ( 80 hrs. ) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 10 months Basic Seaman Course Provide the details of your personal history since the age of 18, or the past 10 years, whichever comes first. Start with the mos t recent information. Under â€Å"Activity†, write your occupation or job title if you were working. If you were not working, provide information on what you were doing (for example: unemployed, studying, travelling, retired, in detention, etc. ).Note: Please ensure that you do not leave any gaps in time. Failure to account for all time periods will result in a delay in the processing of your application. From Y M Y To M Activity Welding Instructor and Aircon Techinician City or town and country Cebu City, Philippines Name of company, employer, school, facility, as applicable Brilliant Metal Craft Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. 2 0 1 2 0 6 2 0 1 2 12 2 0 1 0 12 2 0 1 2 0 3 Electromechanical Supervisor Servicing Department Supervisor Machinist / Tool keeper Machinist / Fitter Mandaue City, Philippines Mandaue City, PhilippinesMEPZ- I ,Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines MEPZ- I ,Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines ZERCOOL POWER Airconditioning and Electrical Servic es B and A TRADING and Airconditioning Services ABTECH Machineries and Engineering Services Corp. ATA Engineering and Technology Consortium Inc. 1 9 9 7 0 6 2 0 1 0 12 1 9 9 4 0 4 1 9 9 6 12 1 9 9 2 1 1 1 9 9 4 0 3 9. Membership or association with organizations What organizations have you supported, been a member of or been associated with? Include any political, social, youth or student organization, trade unions and professional associations. Do not use abbreviations.Indicate the city and country where you were a member. Write â€Å"NONE† in the box if you have not been a member of any association/organization. From Y M Y To M Name of organization Insovilla Plains Homeowners Association BMC Assistant Instructor NONE Type of organization SOCIAL STUDENT Activities and/or positions held within organization PRESIDENT PRESIDENT City and country Lapu-lapu City, Cebu Philippines Cebu City, Philippines 2 0 0 7 0 3 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 2 0 5 2 0 1 2 0 6 NONE NONE 10. Government positions List any government positions (such as civil servant, judge, police officer) you have held. Do not use abbreviations.Write â€Å"NONE† in the box if you have not held any government position. From Y M Y To M Country and level of jurisdiction (e. g. national, regional, municipal) NONE Department/Branch Activities and/or positions held NONE NONE NONE NONE IMM 5669 (07-2011) E Save to Officio PAGE 3 OF 4 11. Military service Provide below details of military service for each of the countries in whose armed forces you served. Write â€Å"NONE† in the box if you have not undertaken military service. Name of country NONE From Y M Y To M Branch of service, unit numbers and names of your commanding officers Rank(s) Dates and places of any active combatNONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE Name of country NONE From Y M Y To M Branch of service, unit numbers and names of your commanding officers Rank(s) Dates and places of any active combat NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE 12. Addresses Li st all addresses where you have lived since your 18th birthday. Do not use P. O. box addresses. From Y M Y To M Juan Luna Street 749 M. L Quezon St. Cabancalan Insovilla Plains, Marigondon Street and number City or town Province, State or District Country 1 9 9 0 0 1 1 9 9 3 0 1 1 9 9 3 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 Danao City Mandaue CIty Lapu-lapu City Cebu Cebu Cebu Philippines Philippines Philippines 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 2 12 IMM 5669 (07-2011) E Save to Officio PAGE 4 OF 4 Authority to disclose personal information By submitting this form, you consent to the release to Canadian government authorities of all records and information any government authority, including police, judicial and state authorities in all countries in which you have lived may possess on your behalf concerning any investigations, arrests, charges, trials, convictions and sentences. This information will be used to assist in evaluating your suitability for admission to Canada or remaining in Canada pursuant to Canadian legisl ation.Declaration of applicant I declare that the information I have given is truthful, complete and correct. Year Month Day Signature Date DO NOT COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SECTION NOW. YOU MAY BE ASKED TO SIGN IN THE PRESENCE OF A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT OR AN OFFICIAL APPOINTED BY THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT. Solemn declaration I, , do solemnly declare that the information I have given in the foregoing application is truthful, complete and correct, and I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing it to be true and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as if made under oath.Interpreter declaration I, , do solemnly declare that I have faithfully and accurately interpreted in the language the content of this application and any related forms to the person concerned. I have been informed by the person concerned, and I do verily believe, that he or she completely understands the nature and effect of these forms, and I make this solemn declaration consci entiously believing it to be true and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as is made under oath. Signature of applicant Signature of interpreterDeclared before me at Canadian Government official this day of of the year Name Please print or type Signature The information you provide on this form is collected under the authority of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and will be used for the purpose of assessing your application for permanent residence. It will be stored in Personal Information Banks (PPU 039 entitled Overseas Immigration Case File and PPU 042 entitled Immigrant Case File). It may be shared with other organizations in accordance with the consistent use of information under the Privacy Act.Under the provisions of the Privacy Act and the Access to Information Act, individuals have the right to protection of and access to their personal information. Details on these matters are available at the Infosource website (http://infosource. gc. ca) and are als o available at public libraries across Canada. IMM 5669 (07-2011) E Family Name: Tito Save to Officio Given Name: Roderick . 7. Education Give the number of years of school you successfully completed for each of the following levels of education. Elementary/ Secondary/ University/ 6 4 primary school high school collegeADDENDUM 1. 5 Trade school or other post secondary school Give full details of all the secondary and post secondary education (including university, college and apprenticeship training) you have had. From Y M Y To M Name of institution BMC Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. City and country Mabolo Cebu City, Philippines Mabolo Cebu City, Philippines Cebu City, Philippines Cebu City, Philippines Type of certificate or diploma issued Shielded Metal Arc Welding NC II ( 360 hrs. ) Industrial Pipefitting NC II ( 160 hrs. ) Industrial Pipefitting Course ( 80 hrs. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 10 months Basic Seaman Course 2 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 3 1 9 9 7 12 1 9 9 7 12 1 9 9 7 0 6 1 9 9 7 0 7 BMC Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. MIAP Training and Service Center / TESDA Region VII Technical Education and Skills Development Authority ( TESDA Region VII ) Mandaue Technical Institute 1 9 9 4 0 6 1 9 9 5 0 4 . 8. Personal history Mandaue City, Cebu Philippines Provide the details of your personal history since the age of 18, or the past 10 years, whichever comes first. Start with the most recent information.Under â€Å"Activity†, write your occupation or job title if you were working. If you were not working, provide information on what you were doing (for example: unemployed, studying, travelling, in detention, etc. ). Note: Please ensure that you do not leave any gaps in time. Failure to account for all time periods will result in a delay in the processing of your application. From Y M Y To M Activity Welding Instructor and Aircon Techinician City or town and country Cebu City, Philippines Na me of company, employer, school, facility, as applicable Brilliant Metal Craft Training Center for Welding and Fabrication Inc. 0 1 2 0 6 2 0 1 2 12 2 0 1 0 12 2 0 1 2 0 3 Electromechanical Supervisor Servicing Department Supervisor Machinist / Tool keeper Machinist / Fitter Mandaue City, Philippines Mandaue City, Philippines MEPZ- I ,Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines MEPZ- I ,Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines Mandaue City, Philippines Danao City, Philippines ZERCOOL POWER Airconditioning and Electrical Services B and A TRADING and Airconditioning Services ABTECH Machineries and Engineering Services Corp. ATA Engineering and Technology Consortium Inc. 1 9 9 7 0 6 2 0 1 0 12 1 9 9 4 0 4 1 9 9 6 12 1 9 9 2 1 1 1 9 9 4 0 3 9 9 2 1 1 1 9 9 3 0 5 1 9 9 0 0 4 1 9 9 2 10 Production Worker Coal Miner Sunpride Foods, Inc. Almendras Mining Corporation 12. Addresses List all addresses where you have lived since your 18th birthday. Do not use P. O. box addresses. From Y M Y To M Street and number City or town Province, State or District Country 1 9 9 0 0 1 1 9 9 3 0 1 1 9 9 3 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 Juan Luna Street Danao City Cebu Philippines 749 M. L Quezon St. Cabancalan Insovilla Plains, Marigondon Mandaue CIty Lapu-lapu City Cebu Cebu Philippines Philippines 2 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 2 12 IMM 5669 (07-2011) E .

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Use of Imagery In A Specific Sport

The term imagery means ‘mental pictures'. It is where an athlete mentally visualises pictures in their mind in order to complete a set routine. Mental rehearsal is a learned skill, which takes considerable time and dedication to develop fully. One cannot just decide to ‘have a go' and expect immediate results. Mental practice demands a relaxed state of mind and this itself demands control and practice. Learning how to rehearse comes about through practice and evaluation. The problem with any kind of conscious mental activity is that the mind is very limited in the amount of information it can handle at any time. Imagery is an experience or situation from memory; it is kind of like creating your own ‘instant replay' in your mind. One thing to remember is that imagery is not ‘day dreaming' about the great things you would like to do. It is a specific psychological method that can be used to improve your performance. Mental rehearsal is best thought of as an adjunct to physical practice. It may be particularly valuable aid at times during injury or at other times when not practicing. For learners, it is probably most effective just prior to performance. Imagery should never take the place of physical practice, but should be used in combination with it. Either before you get to practice, or in the changing room before you go out to start your warm up, it can be useful to go over the drills, techniques and moves that you are likely to be rehearsing. After practice the feel of the movements involved in the techniques and moves that you practiced will be fresh in your memory, so it should be easier to re-create a clear image of the movements. This will help to cement that image in your mind so that it will be easier to recall during the next practice etc. Even during breaks of play in a game, there is time to create a quick, vivid image of what you should do at the next set piece. You can also practice imagery at any time of day. Grant Fox, New Zealand's most prolific points scorer in internationals, who was a strong advocate of the use of imagery in helping his goal-kicking performance. Another example is the skier Jean Claude Killy used it to ‘run every slalom in his mind' just before sleeping the night prior to a competition. Top performers in many sports – both team and individual – spend time thinking about their performance and testify to the value of mental rehearsal. Grant Fox, of New Zealand rugby said ‘mental rehearsal before and during the game has helped me enormously to concentrate, to focus my attention on the job at hand' this would be a positive aspect of imagery. Where as learners who cannot create clear images in their heads cannot recall and often perform worse as the image is wrong in their head. Imagery is successful if it used right. The golfer Jack Nicklaus said ‘I never hit a shot, not even in practice, without having a very sharp image, in-focus picture in my head. It's like a colour movie. First I ‘see' the ball where I want it to finish, nice and white and sitting high up on the green grass. Then the scene quickly changes I ‘see' the ball going there: its path, trajectory and shape, even its behaviour on landing. Then there is a sort of fade-out and the next scene shows me making the kind of swing that will turn the previous images into reality.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Why comics based movies are more polular than comics themselves Research Paper

Why comics based movies are more polular than comics themselves - Research Paper Example ll of emotions, sound, color, drama, cool guys, mean villains - everything they can never have, and could never experience without such heroic-action movie. An all this majestic set of emotions is accompanied with an attractive picture and impressive sound. Films are really popular. Nevertheless, a lot of bestseller films where based on books, and, particularly, the comic books. There is a great number of movies that gained their popularity seemingly from the scratch - 300 Spartans, Sin City, V is for Vendetta - in a row with films that where based on franchise that already has been famous - Spider Man, Batman, X-Men; also Blade, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Conan, Shadow, The Crow - some people would hardly realize, that all these films were based on a source-book ("Cover Browser"). And this source-book is sometimes much larger and deeper than the film is, and just can’t be forced into three hours of a movie time. Additionally, the Batman franchise is an intense sample of TV and film reusing comic book background. We can likewise see it as a sample of the breakdown of high art and the entrance of popular culture into mass minds - a larger number of individuals know and consider Batman as more important than characters from the books of Dickens , Jane Austen or Dostoevsky (Mann). Bright and specific style of drawing, drama, action, expressive emotions and poses, twisted plots that last for years, minor and major issues, apocalypse or personal grief and joy. Comic books, actually, are much older, than their fans, and, actually, sometimes much too older than modern movie fans. First comic book in America was printed in 1842, and, though this type of art has become really popular in no time-The Brownies: Their Book, printed in 1887 became world-renown, its style was impressively different from the one we are used to nowadays ("Comic Books"). It took really long for comics to take the form we are used to. It is considered, that ‘Popeye† can be called

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Why Do People Go to School Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Why Do People Go to School - Essay Example That is exactly why people send their children to school. They want to see them succeed as lawyers, doctors, artists, engineers and all the jobs that pay well. But I don’t agree with Paul when he says that when children go to school wearing uniforms, they look like as if they are being drafted into something. To a certain point in the school career, children need to learn the basics, that is necessary. No one is pressing and molding children into robots by sending them to schools. There is a reason why there is a greater number of successful people who went to school than those who didn’t. While at school, children don’t only delve into their books, there is a whole package of school education. For instance, the extra-curricular activities are not directly related with job hunting but, they are necessary for overall grooming and development of body and mind, which is something people get as a side dish when they get a school education. When a person goes to school, he meets new people, makes new friends, deals with them in dorms. School education teaches students how to meet deadlines on their assignments and juggle huge workloads of various subjects. That is why when an employer hires a person who has gone to school knows that that person is good at time management and multitasking. Paul Murray probably has the same idea about education and learning as John Holt. Unschooling is a term coined by John Holt in referring to custom learning. This type of learning has a purpose not for the schools or college admins but for the students who are learning those things. There is no imposing of any kind on the child. If he is interested in hot rods, his interest might lead him to learn the mechanics of an engine or even building a complete automobile.   Considering a hypothetical situation, had Rex Walls had sent his children to regular schools, he would be had to get a decent regular job like everyone else and his children would not have to steal lunch from other schoolmates and root trash cans for food. But demonstrating Unschooling, what Rex and her wife taught their children about literature, art, music, history, astronomy, geology, and mathematics added so much useful knowledge to their children’s learning but character training was completely absent from. An d that is why such an intelligent and knowledgeable family had to live their lives like nomads. I don’t disagree with Paul Murray and John Holt on the basic idea about education and it is a fact that deep down inside, no one wants to go to school as it is hard work. But I need more pragmatic solutions to their idea of not going to school or Unschooling. Loitering around, doing nothing, watching movies, playing in the parks and sleep when tired, sounds like a dream life but imagine if everyone starts doing this, then there would be no more technicians and engineers to run a TV station. There would be no journalists and writers to play interesting news on TV and publish interesting books and magazines. Like food and water, knowledge or education is the basic necessity of a successful life and school education is one safe way to achieve that.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Grievances of the Palestinians Under the Occupation and a Popular Research Paper

The Grievances of the Palestinians Under the Occupation and a Popular National Uprising - Research Paper Example As the Intifada continued to spread and escalate, Oslo happened. The prospect of peace and the emergence of a liberated and sovereign Palestinian state, concomitant with the recognition of the PLO as the official representatives of the Palestinian people, had brought the violence to an end. As the events of 2000 were to later indicate, however, the Intifada had only been temporarily abated by the promise of peace and the prospect of Palestinian statehood and sovereignty. As it became increasingly evident, however, that Oslo was not going to be realized and as socio-political and economic conditions in the occupied territories continued to worsen, the second Intifada erupted, sparked off by the then-Defense Minister Ariel Sharon’s effective storming of Al Aqsa Mosque. The Palestinian Intifada, as may be deduced from the preceding, is a confrontational resistance to the occupation. As the Palestinians have been resisting the occupation since 1948, it is necessary to distinguish the Intifada (both first and second) from other forms of Israeli-Palestinian confrontation. In essence, as contrasted with previous cycles of contention during the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the Palestinian Intifada may be distinguished by two central features. First its structural context: the fact that the Palestinians were a national minority under Israeli military occupation as opposed to other past structures of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (e.g. two national movements grappling under a British mandate, 1919-1948).

Monday, August 26, 2019

Organisational Behavior and Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organisational Behavior and Analysis - Essay Example Through motivation, employees strive to perform at their best. Motivating employees is definitely a challenging task for any organisation. Hence, the financial rewards deliver an actual method to inspire and compensate the employees and tap them for better and exciting activities (Kohn, 1999). Rewards According to Janet Spence (1971), rewards tend to have a positive impact on motivation which involves the performance of employees to a large extent. Rewards serve as motivations for employees in an effort to inspire them in various methods such as altering job positions, reorganising job plans, developing working situations, and ranges of other activities (Kohn, 1999). The idea and prerequisite for motivation has been enticing much attention in the continuous change of business situation, altering technologies in the area of business and increasing difficulties. These aspects generate interference on the performance and on the level of proficiency of employees. Therefore, motivation he lps to maintain the level of proficiency as well as improve and even develop the performance of the employees to a significant extent. ... and Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is demarcated as conducting an activity for intrinsic fulfilment rather than some distinguishable significance. When the employees are motivated intrinsically, they begin to act for excitement or challenge involved in their assigned tasks rather than due to external reasons, stresses or rewards. According to Hull (1943), a type of employees’ behaviour is the consequence of the motivation that was delivered by emotional forces, and the intrinsically motivated activities were specified to be those activities which offered satisfaction of the intrinsic emotional requirements. Employees have been witnessed to be motivated by satisfying their individual and inner requirements such as requirement for liberation, skill, positive relationship and better working environment in organisation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Intrinsic motivation is a vital instrument for open-ended intellectual improvement as it is the driver of impulsive assessment and c uriosity. Intrinsic form of rewards can be stated as internal procedure of rewards which is experienced by an employee while undertaking a particular task such as new challenges, modification of work or task on the positive achievement of objectives, positive gratitude and sympathetic attitude of the company. To some extent, the financial contemplation or pay benefits does not work well as a motivator after surpassing a certain level of survival. In those conditions, the intrinsic features or elements swap the extrinsic aspect and act as robust and efficient motivators for employees (Ryan & Deci, 2000). On the other hand, extrinsic rewards are denoted to those rewards that appear in the form of material and are recognised as external with respect to task accomplished or implemented. The

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Strategy implementation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Strategy implementation - Essay Example The second step that StilSim Company needs to work on is statement of values, support and maintains it. Stilsim Company needs to make a list of actions and strategies to help the company to succeed. An organizational design, Stilsim Company needs an organizational structure to help determine the risks that come in the way of StilSim Company as well as making a backup plan in case this plan did not work. StilSim Company needs to utilize a behavioral control system and contemporary control as well as establishing reward and incentive to create a high performance culture. Finally, it is important for StilSim Company to be ethical in their line of work as well as making plans for any legal issues that exists. With all this implementation we can definitely say it is a new beginning and era for StilSim Company to dominate the competition and the market. We know people. Our name StilSim was created to reflect the excitement we feel about our business. It flows from the public recognition that we receive for our work and the applause we get in the community and marketplace. It is different, because we are different! With three offices in Central Ohio, and over twenty five years of experience our Ohio workforce consists of huge number of registered associates providing flexible staffing to our clientele’s accounts annually. Our extensive experience in this business community helps us understand the challenges in our marketplace therefore we can supply you with the quality staffing and services to meet those challenges. StilSim Company values integrity, honesty, quality customer service, openness, personal excellence, continual self improvement and mutual respect. We are committed to our customers and cliental. We have the passion to provide the best service out there. We hold ourselves accountable to our customers, shareholders, partners, and employees by honoring our commitments, and providing results. Our brochures and handbook will be provided to our

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Business Strategy Report of Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc Essay

Business Strategy Report of Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc - Essay Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc also known as RBSG is an international company dealing in banking and financial services. The company offers a wide range of products as well as services and serves the commercial, personal along with the large institutional and corporate customers. The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc tends to operate through its subsidiary named the royal bank and the National Westminster Bank Plc also referred to as NatWest. Some of the financial services offered by the Bank include commercial banking, investment banking, and services of wealth management. The bank offers the product through its various brands like RBS, Direct Line, NatWest, Churchill, Ulster Bank, Coutts and the Citizens. The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) forms it’s headquartered in Edinburgh and serves about 30million customers in Europe, UK, and America, Middle East and also Asia and employees about 130,000 staffs glob ally. Some of the major product and services of RBS includes, credit cards, insurance products, retail issue charge card and service offered by the Bank are foreign exchange finance, money market, deposit and investment, treasury services, electronic services, insurance, loans, development along with other services and information technology operations. The banking and financial sector has encountered unprecedented change and turmoil globally. Failure of some of the renowned financial leader like the Lehman Brothers had focused attention towards interconnected debt. Credit along with interbank liquidity had frozen across the globe and it was since then the government across the globe has been pumping money in order to bail out the failing banks in order to normalize the activities of the financial institution and prevent meltdown down of the global financial system.

Health Psychology Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Health Psychology - Article Example According to this model, every illness is the result of abnormal bodily processes such as biochemical disorders or neurophysiologic anomalies. This system is completely based on the western concept of medicine and is being used by health practitioners since the last 300 years. The discovery of antibiotics for treatment of chronic disease has been a major breakthrough in medical science and is the primary advantage of this system of treatment. Moreover, this model helps doctors to design treatment for patients efficiently, allowing them to reveal the current situation of the patient, the required appropriate situation, and thereby develop a course of action to make that happen. However, the model has been widely criticized since it views the human body as parts of a machine which needs to fixed or repaired if something goes wrong. Secondly, it is a single factor model which reveals a reductionist view of illness deducting it to merely low-level processes such has disordered cells and mechanical disparities (Taylor & Sirios, 2012, 6). The biopsychosocial model is an interdisciplinary model that assumes that health and illness are caused by a multiple interaction of biological, psychosocial, and socio-cultural factors. According to this model, ecological systems, social system, psychological system, biological system, and physical system, all together play a crucial role in determining health and illness. The major advantage is that it involves multiple factors in treatment which allows it cover both the macro-level processes (social, psychological, biological) and micro-level processes (physical) related to health. Secondly, it involves developing an effective relationship between the patient and the practitioner thereby, leading to a speedy recovery (Taylor & Sirios, 2012, 7). However, according to some researchers, this model fails to guide on how to prioritize one factor over the other since it covers various factors. As a result,

Friday, August 23, 2019

Moral Judgment and Ethical Leadership in Chinese Management-The Role Research Paper

Moral Judgment and Ethical Leadership in Chinese Management-The Role of Confucianism and Collectivism - Research Paper Example The paper throws light on moral judgment and ethical aspects are two of the most important aspects used in management leadership. Management leaders need to take decisions in regard to greater moral judgments and ethical perspectives. Moral judgment and ethical decision making abilities are important in management leadership in order to develop the organizational science. Moral judgment and ethical leadership management help organizations to reduce the uncertainties in management issues related to interests of multiple stakeholders and management values. In Chinese management system theses concepts are highly important in creating greater effective management leadership practices, Confucianism is the most important ethical as well as philosophical system which was developed by the renowned Chinese philosopher Confucius. This ethical and philosophical aspect is also applied in management leadership practices. The notion of collectivism deals with the any political, social, economic, a nd religious aspect which emphasizes on the interdependence of each and every human being and the concept is very much important in Chinese leadership management for increasing the level of collected interests in management practices. The political structure of the country is the most important inspiration for promoting the collectivism approach in the country and Confucianism acts as the moral guiding support for management leaders across the country to apply moral judgment and ethical aspects in business management practices. ... This ethical and philosophical aspect is also applied in management leadership practices. The notion of collectivism deals with the any political, social, economic, and religious aspect which emphasizes on the interdependence of each and every human being and the concept is very much important in Chinese leadership management for increasing the level of collected interests in management practices. The political structure of the country is the most important inspiration for promoting the collectivism approach in the country and Confucianism acts as the moral guiding support for management leaders across the country to apply moral judgment and ethical aspects in business management practices (Cheng, 2011, pp. 657-658). Literature Review and propositions Development: A) The Nature of Confucianism: Confucianism plays an important role in the process of development of strong cultural perception in Chinese social, cultural, economic, and business management perspectives and also it plays t he most crucial role in the process of development in the culture of the country. Confucianism leads to greater and stronger perceptions in the cultural context of the country. The core idea of Confucianism is humanism which is the guiding force for developing the stronger perspective in the cultural context of the country. The ethical and sociopolitical teaching of the notion of Confucianism and the humanism approach of the performing social, cultural, economic, and political practices and acts are helping the development of all cultural contexts of the country to become stronger with the passage of time (Husted and Alan, 2008, pp. 297-299). This property of Confucianism of dealing with humanism helps the culture of the country through developments of people

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility Essay Example for Free

Corporate Social Responsibility Essay Definition:- [Carroll, 1979; 2008, 500]: The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary expectations that a society has of organizations at a given point in time. EU Definition of CSR: A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD): Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large Concept:- Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders. CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives (â€Å"Triple-Bottom-Line- Approach†), while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders and stakeholders. In this sense it is important to draw a distinction between CSR, which can be a strategic business management concept, and charity, sponsorships or philanthropy. Even though the latter can also make a valuable contribution to poverty reduction, will directly enhance the reputation of a company and strengthen its brand, the concept of CSR clearly goes beyond that. The Pyramid of CSR One of the most popular concepts of CSR was developed by Archie Carroll in the early 1990s. It is known as the pyramid of CSR. The pyramid suggests that CSR is composed by 4 different kinds of social responsibility. These responsibilities are economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic. Caroll considers them to be basic economic responsibilities. The aim of economic responsibility is to provide goods and services for consumers and to gain profit out of it. (Crane, Matten, Spence, 2008, p. 62) Due to capitalism the idea of profit transformed into the extent of maximizing profits upon all other aspects. Society sanctioned businesses for their idea of maximizing profits and in this context governments legislated ground rules according to which businesses must operate. The rules indicated companies to comply with regulations and to fulfill legal obligations. Even though norms like fairness and justice are well ordered in economic and legal responsibility, ethical responsibility goes beyond the law and regulations. It embodies values, norms and expectations from stakeholders, like consumers, employees and a shareholder, for what they believe is fair and right. For a company ethical components of CSR embrace acting morally and ethically and going further than compliance with laws and regulations. (Caroll, 1991) However, ethical responsibility is intertwined with the legal conception and is pushing toward more regulations and higher expectations. The last and smallest layer of the pyramid is philanthropic responsibility. Philanthropic responsibility means for the company to be a good corporate citizen. Taking this challenge into account the company has to contribute to arts, education and the community and, therefore, endorse human welfare or goodwill. Philanthropic responsibility is sometimes put on the same level as ethical. However, the difference is that it is not seen as unethical behavior if businesses do not contribute their money to humanitarian programs.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The impact of the Industrial Revolution

The impact of the Industrial Revolution This investigation examines the effects of the Industrial Revolution from years 1780 to 1840 on the laissez-faire attitude of the British government. This investigation focuses on how the Industrial Revolution benefited from the existence of the laissez-faire attitude in Great Britain during the late 18th century and then contributed to its demise by the mid-19th century. This investigation highlights why the hands-off approach and the lack of government involvement and oversight in economic development helped the explosive growth of industry. It only focuses on Great Britain, which is considered the Industrial Revolutions birthplace, not other European countries nor the United States. The researcher will use various printed texts and internet sources as evidence to address this investigation. In this investigation, two sources are evaluated. The Silent Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in England as a Source of Cultural Change written by John Walter Osborne and The First Industrial Revolution written by Phyllis M. Deane are two sources assessed with their origins, purposes, values, and limitations. B. Summary of Evidence From medieval times there had been strict regulation in Britain on wages, employment, training (apprenticeship), industrial location, prices, and commerce. By the mid-17th century, these regulations were difficult for the government to enforce due to new industries and expanded trade.  [1]  Therefore, the restrictions were ineffective and suspended. For more than a hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, the State was in retreat from the economic field.  [2]  There was the fact that a large number of restrictions on economic activity and on the free-flow of trade were reduced or removed.  [3]   Prior to the Industrial Revolution, governments were primarily structured to keep peace at home and to defend the country against foreign enemies. The function of government was administration, not legislation.  [4]  The central government administration in Britain was small compared to modern standards. As late as 1833 the Home Office employed only 30 persons and the Board and Trade, 20. So limited were its activities that the central government consisted mainly of customs officials and excise menà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ And nothing was as yet done on a national level concerning health, education, or poor relief.  [5]   Adam Smith, a Scottish economist in the mid-late 1700s, strongly opposed any government interference in business affairs. He and his followers heavily influenced the adaptation of laissez-faire government and used the doctrine of the invisible hand to justify free trade. Trade restrictions, minimum wage laws, and product regulation were all viewed as detrimental to a nations economic health.  [6]  The philosophy of laissez-faire, the view that the business of government was to leave things alone, and adopted whole-heartedly the view that the unrestricted operation of private enterprise was the most effective way of securing the maximum rate of economic growth.  [7]   The triumph of laissez-faire in the 19th century is the retreat from protectionism and the adoption of a free trade policy.  [8]  Due to limited government regulation and intervention, innovation was accelerated. In England, factory owners had access to the natural resources necessary for the mass production of goods and a willing workforce. Employers were able to offer low wages for long hours because of the sizable poor population.  [9]   In the 1830s and 1840s, and still more in the 1850s, the State was steadily taking responsibility for wider and wider control of private enterprise in the interest of society as a whole.  [10]  Even though the laissez-faire attitude of the British government which took hold in the mid-18th century spurred the growth of the industrial revolution, it was the revolution itself which brought the laissez-faire movement to an end. The industrial revolution changed every aspect of society in Britain. Migration from small rural villages to urban cities took place. Living conditions were poor for the working class and their newly concentrated population increased awareness of their struggles. Prior to this urbanization of the population, society was not focused on the health and welfare of the general population. Around this time, the appeal of ethics and moral philosophy began to take hold.  [11]  With this new focus, pressure was put on the government to address the issues of the po or. This caused the government to get involved and no longer allowed for a hands-off policy. The decline of laissez-faire attitudes, corruption in government, growth of political parties, public opinion, and increased efficiency of legislative activity were in varying degrees caused by industrialism. C. Evaluation of Sources The First Industrial Revolution written by Phyllis Deane published in 1980 provides useful insight for the historian into the role of the British government during the British Industrial Revolution. Phyllis Deane is a professor of economic history at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Newnham College who references many other historians in her work. The sources purpose is to describe how the British government functioned throughout the Industrial Revolution and how it took on the philosophy of laissez-faire. This books values are that it allows for a thorough understanding of how the British government removed many restrictions on economic activity to go along with its laissez-faire attitude. It also references Adam Smith and the beginning of the laissez-faire ideology stating how the business of government is to leave things alone. However, a limitation to this source is that the authors references are limited to writings from the twentieth century and do not include works from the Industrial Revolution time period. The Silent Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in England as a Source of Cultural Change written by John Walter Osborne, published in 1970, is another beneficial source for the historian. John W. Osborne is a history professor at Rutgers University who specializes in modern Europe and nineteenth century Britain. This sources purpose is to depict changes in Britain from before and after the Industrial Revolution. It also parades how the laissez-faire philosophy took on by the government influenced this change. A value of this source is that it gives the perspective of a historian who contrasts Britain before and after the Industrial Revolution and provides specific details of what the British government believed at the time. A limitation to this source is that the author is interested in a broad range of social impacts and is not entirely focused on the impact that the Industrial Revolution had on government. D. Analysis Prior to Britains industrial revolution (1760 to 1830) government and society overall had very different characteristics. Britain had been a primarily agricultural economy with the textile industry being mainly small, independent businesses. With the Industrial Revolution, communities transitioned from rural to urban. There was great upheaval caused by this change. While the Industrial Revolution brought positive changes, the benefits were usually seen by the upper class who took advantage of the new means of industry. In contrast with the positive changes, many individuals found themselves disadvantaged by the loss of their livelihoods at their traditional crafts. The population growth, overcrowding, and squalid living circumstances in cities where the jobs could be found were only compounded by the lack of compassion for the lower class.  [12]   It is well documented that a laissez-faire attitude existed in the British government at the end of eighteenth century. With the explosive growth of industry, government oversight was not possible. The government did not have the resources to regulate private commerce. At this time, there was also resistance to government involvement since government involvement was perceived as a hindrance and would have impaired prosperous growth. The idea of government being responsible for the welfare of its citizens did not exist at that time and helping people living in poverty was not seen as responsibility of the government. The laissez-faire attitude promoted by leaders and economists, such as Adam Smith, kept government out of private industry during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Without government intervention, private corporations were able to set their own standards. The driving incentive for these industries was profit. Due to the absence of guidelines, working conditions were poor and minimum wages were usually nonexistent. The rapid changes occurring during the Industrial Revolution greatly influenced all aspects of British life including the view of the role of government. It brought about new concepts on how society should behave. It is due to these changing perceptions that by the 1820s parliament passed a large volume of economic and social legislation.  [13]  It is based on this evidence that the Industrial Revolution brought to an end the British governments laissez-faire attitude. Government began to intervene in the behavior of private enterprise at the local level in the urban areas where social problems were the most extreme. It was particularly true when government stepped in to address problems of sanitation and town improvement and was particularly necessary when regulating land lords and builders who did not have the interests of the overall community in mind.  [14]   In addition to government intervention due to health issues, the government was beginning to be pressured by the growing voice of the working class who were petitioning for safer and fairer working conditions. The growth of public opinion was brought about by technical improvements of the steam powered newspaper presses which increased circulation.  [15]  This raised the awareness of poor living conditions and unfair practices in the workplace. The sources utilized in this investigation were written by researchers who employed a wide variety of material when developing their publications. The materials ranged from earlier twentieth century analyses of the Industrial Revolution and back to writings from the time period of the Industrial Revolution. It is through their in-depth analysis and interpretation that the researcher can gain an understanding of the impact of the Industrial Revolution. E. Conclusion At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution a laissez-faire attitude existed. The changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution shifted the behavior of the British political system away from their hands-off philosophy. While the Industrial Revolution brought about great innovation, it made more acute the issues of poverty and poor working conditions. The Industrial Revolution influenced changes to the role of the government and was responsible for the social and economic legislation passed in the first half of the nineteenth century. Instead of allowing industry to run without oversight and pursue profit at the expense of society, regulations were enacted which resulted in improved living conditions for the working class. This change to government after Britains Industrial Revolution is the basis for modern-day government. F. List of Sources Adam Smiths Laissez-Faire Policies. The Victorian Web: An Overview. Accessed November 29, 2011. Ashton, T. S. The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. London: Oxford University Press, 1948. British Industrial Revolution. Clemson University. Accessed November 29, 2011. Deane, Phyllis M. The Role of Government. In The First Industrial Revolution, 219-37. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Miller, James. The 1800s. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Osborne, John W. The New Politics: The Growth of Legislation. In The Silent Revolution: the Industrial Revolution in England as a Source of Cultural Change, 85-105. Scribner, 1970. Word Count: 1945

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Construction Project Cost Estimation Factors

Construction Project Cost Estimation Factors Construction project estimations are priced using a bill of quantities this is a detailed description of the items needed to finish the product and their costs. The first and foremost purpose of estimating is basically to set a budget for contract work. This budget is to be kept all the way through the project and is a guess of what the project on a whole will cost it should not be breached or the project is considered a failure and usually results in a loss of money. Another reason that an estimate is given is so that the contractor can obtain competitive prices from a range of companies to do the work that is needed say for instance if one company gave an estimate way lower than another competing company then obviously the contractor is going to pick the company with the lowest estimate (however the standard of materials and work comes into this also); this is how negotiations work. An estimate is given so that the company or contractor can see weather a profit can be made from the job and in construction profit is everything. If you are not going to make a profit on the job in hand there is no point taking it on. In order to prepare a detailed estimate the estimator must have with him the following data: Plans, sections and other relevant details of the work. Specifications indicating the exact nature and class of materials to be used. The rates at which the different items of work are carried out. To enable an estimator to take out the quantities accurately, the drawings must themselves be clear, true to the fact and scale, complete, and fully dimensioned. The estimator has also to bear in mind certain principles of taking out quantities. When creating the estimate the estimator must separate the costs into different sections. There are preliminary costs, net costs and gross costs Preliminary Cost The preliminary part of a bill of quantities is the section that provides a description of the project, the contractors general facilities and setup and running costs. If work is disrupted for reasons out of the contractors control, recurring costs are often used to calculate compensation for the extension on the contract period. Plant, Tools and Vehicles are included in the preliminary stage of the bill of quantities. The contractor will include the cost of buying or maintaining machinery, tools and vehicles in the preliminary section of an estimate or a bill of quantities. Also the cost of erecting, inspecting and maintaining scaffolding for a project is included in the preliminaries section. The cost will always depend on the surface area of the structure, the length of time the scaffolding is erect and the type of building that is being built. Part of the assessment of a contractors site costs will include the non-productive staff required to administer a site. This generally will include a site manager, an engineer, a store man, a safety officer and a general foreman. Site Services The preliminaries of a construction project include the costs of installing site toilets, changing rooms, offices, water and electricity, temporary roads and the installation of site security. Within a company gross profit is very important because it  shows how efficiently management uses labour and supplies in the production process. More specifically, it can be used to calculate gross profit margin. If we as a company are not making a gross profit then basically we dont have a company. This magnifies why an estimate is important because we know roughly how much we are going to make when we do a project. Therefore we must know how much we are going to spend so we can look at the correlation of the two figures and see weather the project is worth doing. Net Costs The net cost is the cost of all of the basic things you need on site to complete the job in hand. This includes labour; the wages for all of the staff and the facilities they use including food, shelter and first aid. Also all of the equipment they use. The cost of plant material also ties in with the net cost but this will all depend on the type of job you are doing; say you are building a high rise building with several floors then a large crane will be needed this obviously costs a lot of money to hire out by the hour meaning that a large sum will be added onto the estimate in comparison to building a smaller building that will need smaller less expensive plant. Materials also come into the estimation of the net cost. The materials need to be well thought out before the project begins. They must be effective for there cause and there cost. When doing an estimation the estimator must find competitive rates for materials that are to the buyers specification. The cost of these will a ll be added to the estimation. Gross Profit The definition of gross profit is: Calculated as sales minus all costs directly related to those sales. These costs can include manufacturing expenses, raw materials, labour, selling, marketing and other expenses. Within a company gross profit is very important because it  shows how efficiently management uses labour and supplies in the production process. More specifically, it can be used to calculate gross profit margin. If we as a company are not making a gross profit then basically we dont have a company. This magnifies why an estimate is important because we know roughly how much we are going to make when we do a project. Therefore we must know how much we are going to spend so we can look at the correlation of the two figures and see weather the project is worth doing. Overheads are also included into the estimation. These are costs that cannot be controlled such as water gas and electric bills. These are hard to calculate as we never know how much there going to cost. Rent is also a good example. Single rate estimation This method of estimation is used usually by national bodies such as schools and hostpitals for measuring and estimating the cost of large floor areas. It is a usefull way of estimation when a quick cost range is needed in the early stages of design. However it is very difficult to change costs to fit different projects in different locations. So say you know it costs  £1000 to floor 1 room of a hotel and you have a budget of  £50000 then you know you can build 50 rooms that are all the same. Also when you have a set design for these types of buildings such as Holiday Inns do you know it will always be the same where ever you are Other types of buildings that this type of estimating is useful for are factory units, hotels, hostels, houses that are all the same deign and retail buildings. The floor area method is given in m ² the reason why this method is so popular is because of how simple it is. Plus most contractors know the way in which it works and are very used to the idea. It takes previous buildings that have been designed that are similar to give designers and builders a guideline on how to construct other buildings that are the same. P4 Identify and explain those factors that affect the percentage profit margins, those that affect the output of labour and those that affect the hourly/idle rates for a variety of plant items. Labour Rates There are calculations that have to be made when undergoing a project to establish a rate that the estimator can use to price the tender works which recovers all the costs involved in employing labour directly. The reason this is done is if you had employed a worker on site for  £12.00 an hour is that all you will be paying him, obviously not; there are more things that need to be included and taken into account when calculating that costs of labour. The basic rate of pay has to be agreed with both company and worker; this includes any holiday pay or sick pay that will be taken due to entitlement. Workers will still be paid for these days. Weather can restrict when workers can do the work meaning they may not get paid for some hours of the day or even the whole day. Also the employers national insurance contribution needs to be made as well as payments to the CITB (construction Industry Training Board). And, finally any bonuses that are given to the worker as extra incentives. To calculate the cost of labour per hour we must take all of the above into consideration however, one more piece of information is required, this is the output rates for labour. How fast can a brick layer lay bricks? If your paying a man by the hour, how long will it take for him to finish the job. The idea behind this calculation is to really see if its worth hiring in to do the job because obviously some workers are better than others. If you can establish the the output rate of labour, then you can calculate the cost of labour per unit of brickwork(for example). This can be applied to the tender prices. Output rates can be estimated in one of two ways. Carrying out work studies where bricklayers are timed to see how many bricks they can lay in an hour. Or using output tables from work done in the past can provide information on how long work took or on unit output rates. Plant Expenses Plant in construction can be very expensive to hire and own and even operate. It is the estimators job to be able to give a guide on how much it will cost for plant on any specific job. There are two ways of providing plant for construction sites. These are if the company decide to purchase the plant (this means they must operate and service it) or hire in the plant externally or internally. Operating costs are those that are time related. If the plant was owned by a company the calculation and estimation of how much the operating costs would be would include the amount of fuel used. This would have to be done using a consumption rate of the plant. Also any repairs on punctures etc. These will occur rarely and at random and are added in to recover costs. Also operating costs must be considered. The umber of hours that it is operating will obviously cost more in energy and make for more breakages. When hiring plant there more aspects required to take a note of there are deliver costs to think about. If your site is in the city it may be hard to get it to your site so alternative methods of transport are used but usually low loaders and tractors are used nevertheless all of these methods cost money. Erection costs are also something to think about, if it is a crane that you need then this is going to take time to erect, and time equals money not to mention the labour involved. Also when everything is finished removal costs come into place and these need to be noted and change the percentage profit in the long run The worst thing that can happen to a site manger is when he has expensive plant lying around and not doing anything; this wastes a lot of money, mainly through rental costs. The rate of rental costs per hour is very expensive as we know. The unit rate of calculation for an item of plant will depend on a number of things. The ground conditions are important, weather there are trained operators. If not then hiring someone new or investing in training is needed (training would be needed for at least 2 people to account for the absent). The dimensions of the height and reach of the plant material is also accounted for. The higher and longer the plant is the more it costs for example a crane costs more than a small digger. Finally the reliably plays an important role in how much plant costs. If you are hiring or buying brand new plant machinery then its obviously going to cost more. All of these things take off and put on percentage to the overall percentage profit. M3 Overheads and On Costs Overhead is business term that refers to fixed costs that a business incurs so that production is continued. Overheads can be cut if limits to production are made, or if production is halted completely, although some overheads are incurred whether there is and production or not. Overhead expenses are all costs on the  income statement  except for direct labor, direct materials direct expenses. Overhead expenses include accounting fees, advertising, depreciation, insurance, interest, legal fees, rent, repairs, supplies, taxes, telephone bills, travel and utilities costs. In construction the overheads of a company are the costs that must be met in order to be able to run the head office. These are things such as; departmental costs (buying the department) and insurances, also paying for company cars and basic IT equipment. They are basically costs you cant control such as wages, electricity, gas or office rent, usually you will have to recover them because they include admin. Most medium sized construction organisations recover the cost of these each year spread over the turnover of the project; this can be added as a percentage addition but may vary according to your turnover. Just the same as any other aspect of construction work this has to be added into the estimation at the start of a job and must be met from somewhere. So a percentage is used to signify the cost of these necessities. The calculation involved takes the total value of the companys overheads per year and then the turnover and divide them two totals and finally times the number by 100%. This will give us the percentage to add to tender. This percentage will always be applied to future estimates unless the turnover drops. There are a few other ways that the overheads can be set up so that the value is always known. By not including them, but using an increased profit margin to cover their costs will reconcile the overheads. But, for larger and more well-known companies working on larger projects we can move the head office into small cabins that are positioned on the site this allows us to recover the costs of overheads through the preliminaries. The turnover that comes from a company will rise and fall from year to year. It goes without saying that the risks you take and the work efficiency of your company will change all the time. No year will ever be the same as the last one; it can be similar in terms of jobs and projects and contract pricing but will usually never be the same. Risks that we take are a massive factor to the turnover. Some risks are worth it and some go wrong, thats the risk we take to get more money. As a leader of a company we have to make the right decisions when risking and always be level headed and think everything through so that in the end we make money. Work efficiency also plays a massive part in annual turnovers. Being efficient can save money and make more of a difference to your profit margins than you may think. Lastly when pricing is competitive with in the industry this takes affect. As a company you may need to lower your prices to be able to sign a deal. If you dont then you wont get a de al and you wont get work done, meaning you wont make money. When the turnover of a company drops, you loose not only profit but you loose money on overheads as well this is because the turnover will drop with proportion with the percentage. However, on the other hand if the turnover rises this can create money to compensate for overheads as mentioned earlier. In the preliminaries there are fixed and time related changes that must be considered. In SMM7 we see that these two types of charges are identified separately. A fixed charge is the cost of the work that is independent on duration and a time related charge is the cost that is dependant on others over duration.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Fried Green Tomatoes at Whistle Stop Cafe: Novel vs. Movie Essays

Fried Green Tomatoes at Whistle Stop Cafe: Novel vs. Movie â€Å"I may be sitting at the Rose Terrace Nursing Home, but in my mind I’m over at the Whistle Stop Cafe having a plate of Fried Green Tomatoes† (Flagg ). Both the novel and the movie received a number of great reviews and honors. However, the two vary greatly in content. The novel, Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe, brings the reader a much more detailed and very different story compared to the movie. For example, the character Vesta Adcock as portrayed in the novel is a citizen of Whistle Stop. Flagg sees Vesta as having church meetings and socials at her home and also as being the president of the drama club. â€Å"... Mrs. Vesta Acock, this little bird-breasted woman... who’s from Whistle Stop, came in wearing her fox furs and her diamond dinner rings† (Flagg 27). However, in the movie, Mrs. Adcock’s character changes completely. She does not play a woman from Whistle Stop, but Ed Couch’s aunt. The film shows her as a grouchy old woman residing in the Rose Hills Nursing Home Also, in the novel Flagg describes Buddy Threadgoode’s lover as Eva, the town harlot and proprietor of â€Å"The Wagon Wheel River and Fishing Club†. â€Å"...she had slept with a lot of men..., but [Buddy] didn’t care. Eva was as easy with her body as she was with every thing else.... The first time she took [Buddy] to bed, she made him feel like a man† (Flagg 94). Although the movie shows Buddy in love with the most admired woman in Whistle Stop, Ruth Jamison, the film shows Buddy walking with Ruth by the river. His eyes light up when he sees her and he cares about her greatly. In fact, he was trying to retrieve Ruth’s hat when the train killed him. Ninny Threadgoode says in the movie, â€Å"...his heart belonged to Ruth Jamison.† In addition, in the novel, Evelyn, who feels her life has become an endless battlefield, mainly because of her severe self-conscienceness, invented a person she used to give her courage in times she felt belittled. When someone would make her feel worthless Evelyn would think about Towanda and all the super hero battles she would fight if she really were Towanda. â€Å"Evelyn had even made up a secret code name for herself... a name feared around the world: TOWANDA THE AVENGER!† (Flagg 238). On the other hand in the movie, the unrefined and untamed Idgie Threadgoode thinks up Towanda. Evelyn uses... scattered to the wind.† She does not find her house, although her new friend comforts her. In the movie, Ninny says,â€Å" Hey Evelyn, somebody stole my house. It was right here when I left.† Evelyn, who has fallen in love with Ninny, takes Ninny to her house and makes a home for her there. However, in the novel, Ninny Threadgoode goes back to her home in Whistle Stop, a growing city. There has been a lot of changes in the town, and all of Ninny’s memories have become rundown issuers. Despite the changes she returns to her house. Shortly after she returns, she dies a peaceful death in her sleep. â€Å"She wasn’t sick...she died in her sleep† (Flagg 378). Indeed, the movie and the novel hold many differences. Characters have changed, been eliminated, events have been left out, and relationships differed. Despite the changes, the film still managed to live up to the standards the book set. â€Å"Fried Green Tomatoes is a thorouly enjoyable move...,† says James Berardinelli quoted from the internet. Nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1987, this novel has tons of material which changed in the screenplay. However, both works offer dynamic characters, an interesting plot, and charming dialogue.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Bloody Mary Essay -- Essays Papers

Bloody Mary Mary I, Queen of England was a very prominent figure in European history. Her reign as queen was filled with many trials and tribulations that were not accepted by most of England. Many of Mary’s rash decisions were most likely do to her upbringing and her lack of will power. Whether it is being declared a bastard as a young child by her tyrannical father, Henry VIII, or her marriage to Phillip of Spain, Mary was easily influenced by others and it showed as she grew older and took over the thrown. Mary was born the daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine. Henry had failed again to bear a son to retain the thrown after him. His annulment from Katherine was not granted so Henry decreed that the Church of England be separate from the Church of Rome. Katherine still tried not to jeopardize her daughter’s succession to the thrown, for this she was banished and Mary was declared a bastard. These events had a devastating effect on Mary who was once adored by both parents. Mary never saw her mother again and her stepmother, Anne Boleyn, treated her with extreme cruelty, even threatening to have her executed. All these things affected Mary’s adolescence. She suffered premenstrual tension her whole life; her periods were infrequent or absent all together. But through all this her mother’s influence stayed with her. She inherited her piety and love of religion from her mother and made it her life’s crusade to restore England with the faith Katherine had been so devoted. Mary’s innocence and naivety stayed with her throughout her whole life. This was present in her statement, â€Å"What is a whore, I’ve never heard the word before.†(Weir 12). And even more present in her marriage to Philip of Spain. Philip was simply following orders, in no way was he attracted to Mary; Philip wanted to gain England as part of the Habsburg empire. Neither Spain nor England agreed with the marriage. They communicated in Latin since both could not communicate in English or Spanish(Marilee 2). Mary then led Philip through many false pregnancies, this was due to her irregular periods and she was now entering menopause and developing a stomach tumor. Few questioned her because she honestly believed herself(Liston 117). Philip left and said he wouldn’t return unless he was crowned king. Mary cont... ... 4. Tension brought by these tragic events III. Mary’s innocence A. What is a whore B. Marriage to Philip of Spain 1. Following orders 2. Wanted England as part of the Habsburg empire. 3. Communicated in Latin a. Philip didn’t know English b. Mary didn’t know Spanish 4. Mary led Philip through false pregnancies a. irregular period b. menopause c. stomach tumor 5. Philip left England a. Mary continued to help Philip b. It was hurting England IV. Mary’s bloodbath A. Philip’s return to England B. Influence of leaders of the Spanish Inquisition C. Execution of more than three hundred 1. Burned at the stake 2. Protestants became martyrs 3. Only strengthened their religion V. Mary’s fall A. Famine B. Adopted the nick name â€Å"Bloody† Mary C. More false pregnancies D. Her hated sister Elizabeth would retain the thrown

Economic Factors have been of dominant concern in Australian Foreign Po

‘ECONOMIC FACTORS HAVE BEEN THE DOMINANT CONCERN IN AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN POLICY OVER THE PAST 25 YEARS.’ During the past 25 years, Australian Foreign Policy has consisted of a balance between economic and security priorities. No government can afford to focus on one to the detriment of the other. During the Hawke and Keating era (1983-1996), economic factors were of significant importance as we were in a region that was growing rapidly, faster than any other region in the world. Although having said this, it can be argued that there were exceptions whereby security initiatives were of equal concern to the government. In the current day (Howard era), it is possible to view that there is a higher emphasis on security initiatives than ever before due to being situated in a heavily volatile region (Arc of Instability). Having said this, there once again has been emphasis on the economic growth and prosperity of our nation at the same time, via the use of Trade Agreements and other forms of economic policy. This indicates that although there have been concern on economic factors in the past 25 years in relation to Australian Foreign Policy (AFP) decisions, there has also been a balanced emphasis on security factors during this period. There is no doubt that during the Hawke/Keating era (83-96) economic priorities received significant emphasis in Australian Foreign Policy decisions. To promote the economic growth and increase of trade in the Asia Pacific Region, the Hawke government embarked on a period of ‘enmeshment’ within the region. Keating proposed this enmeshment with neighboring â€Å"Tiger Economies† by co-founding the APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Corporation), in 1989. Focused on facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region, it was seen as being crucial to maintain healthy international diplomatic relations within the Asia - Pacific region. This was largely due to the strengthening trading blocks such as the EU (European Union) and NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement). These trading blocks exclusively stipulated that major trading was being transacted via these member economies and was ruling Australia out of many valuable markets. This reinforced that Australia must turn towards its own region for the concentration of developing itself as a strong economy and therefore founded the APEC organization under it... economic growth in the Asia Pacific Region, whilst also maintaining a fair market for the trade of agricultural goods. On the other hand particular focus was also placed on the national security interests on Australia with the participation in the 1991 Gulf War, in an attempt to strengthen our military ties with the USA and also strengthen ties via the ANZUS Treaty. However it can also be seen during the Howard era that Foreign Policy focus was primarily on a balance between security and economic objectives via the implementation of the â€Å"Helpem Fren† initiative in the Solomon Islands and Enhanced Cooperation Program in Papua New Guinea, there were also factors that determined a focus on security initiatives along with this economic focus. This was through Australia’s participation in the Gulf War to improve our military relationship and ‘insurance policy’ with the USA. Economic factors that were also in the Australian government interests for t he nation, was the bilateral free trade agreement with the USA. After evaluating both of these national parties and eras it can concluded that no government can afford to focus on one area of foreign policy to the detriment of the other.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Campus Food Systems

Cindy Breen is currently pursuing a Master’s degree in food service manage and part of the program is serving as intern with Campus Food Systems. One of the tasks Cindy is required to perform is preparing a report addressing work accidents in the food service areas. The report will address health and safety hazards as well as work related incidents of which there have been 46 to this point in her findings. Additionally, Cindy’s boss Jack has also implied that her grade for the internship as well as a good job recommendation is dependent on how she handles the accident report (Ivancevich, 2010).Even though Cindy is faced with deciding whether to do as her boss has requested, she should make the right decisions for the university, its employees and herself. In order to create a safe and healthy workplace, Cindy has to inform her boss she refuses to omit any incident or minimize accidents from the report just because her boss (Jack Platt) is more interested in the bottom l ine—profits and productivity. In fact some employers, injuries and illnesses as a routine part of the job and the only thing that matters is the bottom line—profits and productivity (Friend & Kohn, 2010).In light of the fact that Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) allows employees to call and request inspections anonymously, Cindy must call OSHA and request an inspection of CFS. The accidents in which several employees had cut their hands on the meat slicer was due to safety hazards such as poorly maintained equipment and unsafe machinery. The incident involving a case of severe salmonella poisoning of a student, needs to be reported to not only OSHA, but the President of the school immediately. The student became so ill he spent three months in the hospital due to the health hazard of handling diseased seafood.While the students are not allowed to handle raw seafood, violations of this rule occur frequently which results in high absenteeism and turno ver of full-time personnel (Ivancevich, 2010). Given Cindy’s level of angst concerning the high number of incidents and accidents that have occurred over the last year and that her boss wants her to falsify the report, she needs to address her concerns and findings to take her findings to President of the school and persuade him to take action immediately to prevent these accidents/incidents from happening again and to protect the school from possible lawsuit.Additionally, she needs to notify the state and OSHA officials concerning this issue (Ivancevich, 2010). Cindy has several options available to her to improve and health and safety of the CFS work environment. These options/approaches include prevention and design; training and motivation; audits and inspections; and giving managers and supervisors the authority to make changes within the work place to prevent accidents and injuries (Ivancevich, 2010).Prevention and design approach designs additional safety into the work place through safety engineering (Ivancevich, 2010). Another option is for Cindy to recommend the establishment of a safety team to advise management on the consequence of not improving work place health and safety in terms of economic, legal and moral reasons. One of the responsibilities of CFS’ safety team would the training of the employees—demonstrating a healthy and safe working setting by showing them how to deal with hazardous characteristics of a liquid that is flammable.Besides, a safe and healthy work environment is the right thing to do for other employees, themselves and the company unlike Jake who doesn't care about the safety of employees by encouraging omissions on the report (Friend & Kohn, 2010). The CFS safety team would also be responsible for developing communicating and information strategies to inform employees and prevent injuries while reducing risks. The safety team would also conduct in-depth analysis of incidents and accidents so as to identi fy risk factors (Stellman, 1998).Given the fact that most supervisors of workers are responsible for occupational health and safety in the work place, supervisors and managers must have the power to redesign work processes within their area to accomplish this. The flip side of this is the financial loss due to injuries/accidents which may adversely affect the bottom line (Friend & Kohn, 2010). Cindy Breen cannot simply brush away her findings like her boss (Jack Platt) would like for her to do.Regardless how hard you try and hide unethical practices and behaviors, the truth always comes out. Unfortunately it is always at the expense of not only the school, but employees and students alike. Whether Cindy minimizes her accident/incident report is ultimately up to her to make the right ethical decision. Jack Platt needs to be relieved of his job for the unethical behavior of falsifying documents that are to be sent to OSHA.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Trojan Ad

Magazine advertisements spend millions of dollars each year in order to develop ideas to convey their message or to sell their products in today’s society. The many different views and values in society lead to various marketing ideas that capture the attention of many individuals, otherwise known as, the consumers. It is important to remember that the diverse preferences of the audience are taken into consideration when devising a marketing plan that would appeal to a wide range of people. Trojan, a company that focuses on the sale of contraceptives, spends millions of dollars each year to sell their products.In their most current advertising campaign, Trojan is trying to sell their newest brand of condom, Evolve. For this particular campaign, the marketing individuals promoting this product decided to show the differences between men and pigs by implying that men who use Trojan are considered to be true gentlemen while men who do not are regarded as pigs. While it seems that Trojan is suggesting the message of cleanliness by the usage of their condom, nonetheless, they themselves are not â€Å"clean† because of the message that they are conveying.The message behind the Evolve advertisement is to show the perceptions of men when they use or do not use Trojan brand condoms. The message behind this advertisement is to show that if a male uses their brand name condoms, he is considered as a â€Å"clean† and respectable individual, unlike a pig, which is usually associated with â€Å"dirtiness†. The different characters in this campaign reveal the hidden meaning that the use of Trojan brand condoms would not damage or ruin a man’s reputation of being â€Å"honorable†. The setting of the advertisement is placed at a beach, with a rather warm weather; therefore attracting people to its warmness.The attendance of the beach consists of six females, one male, and ten pigs. The females, who are all wearing revealing bathing suit s, are each being prowled by pigs. In the foreground, a female is sitting on a folding chair reading a book entitled, No Time for Swine, whilst on her right side there is a naked pig which seems to be whispering something into her right ear. Also in the foreground, there is a female trying to get a natural tan by lying on a towel on the sand, as a naked pig is taking a photograph of her with his cellular phone.Behind her is another female who is preparing to serve a volleyball, and at the same time being watched by two naked pigs. On the left middle ground of the advertisement is another female and a naked pig squirting sunscreen onto her back. In the background, a naked pig is pursuing after a female in the water. There are several other naked pigs floating and surfing in the water. One other pig is sitting under an umbrella and spying on the females with a pair of binoculars. The expressions on each of the irritated and disgusted faces of the females show that the male pigs are no t welcomed.Finally, in the center of the image, there is a couple, a man and a woman, holding hands and walking on the sand. Their backs are facing toward the audience. The major difference between this couple and all the others is because of the female and male relationship. Below the image are the words: â€Å"Evolve. Use the most trusted name in condoms every time. † followed by the logo name, Trojan ® Brand Condoms. With this representation of their product, what first comes to mind? Most importantly, what is the precise message that Trojan is aiming at the audience with their advertisement?Trojan is portraying society and media in all stereotypes. As will be mentioned, Trojan is revealing the idea and image of a â€Å"perfect† body type. Their view of a perfect and beautiful person is portrayed in their advertisement as tall and skinny. Trojan portrays their consumers as only beautiful, when in fact today’s society consists of all shapes and body sizes. T rojan is promoting the idea that â€Å"sex sells†, by exploiting the women as objects of sexual behaviors, and promoting the idea of sex itself. They assume that their consumers all engage in sexual behaviors and therefore are required to purchase their product.They also assume that once you use their product, the male will gain the trust of the female. However, numerous interpretations can be drawn from this description of their advertisement. Is Trojan aiming to promote the usage of their condom, Evolve? Or are they exploiting women by means of their representation in the advertisement? Are men really â€Å"evolved† after the usage of their product? Each of these questions can be answered with multiple analyses. First of all, the advertisement portrays men as pigs if they do not use Trojan condoms.This can be seen by the representation of only one male versus the ten pigs in the whole of the image. The connotation of the word â€Å"pig† suggests that they are dirty, fat, lazy, perverted, and irresponsible. This is contradictory of the view of â€Å"man†, whom in this advertisement, is portrayed as clean, handsome, masculine, sociable, and responsible. Compared to the pigs, the man is welcomed and accepted by the female. The pleasant and content face of the female suggests that she is comfortable with holding hands with the male and welcomes his presence.The other females in this campaign have a miserable facial expression because they have a â€Å"dirty†, perverted pig prowling next to them and invading their personal space. The word â€Å"swine† from the title of the book, No Time for Swine, refers to stout and short-legged animals such as pigs. The title suggests that the female is not interested in committing her time to that type of person. She is more willing to spend her time with a real man, such as the one on the cover of the book. However, it is instinctual for the viewer to compare and contrast man and pig at first glance.What if the man in the advertisement encompasses the same intentions as the pig? Is it possible to detach the idea of a dirty sexual being to a separate and thoughtful individual? Another observation that can be made about this campaign is the manner in which the marketing individuals represent the women. The purpose of the women is to exploit them for the intention of the objectification of the product. Each female is wearing a revealing bathing suit in order to be used as an object to absorb the viewers in.The woman who is trying to get a tan is in a position that is similar to when one is preparing for sexual intercourse which gives the image of tenderness and readiness. Also, the female seems to be pulling on the knot of her bikini bottom, which gives the impression that she is ready to take them off. The woman who is being squirted with lotion by another pig also gives the impression of a sexual act, such as ejaculation. The facial expression that is being displ ayed on her face tells us that what the pig is doing is considered as revolting and unwanted.This represents a male who has discharged on a female when he did not use a condom; therefore the male is unable to protect her and is considered to be a pig instead of a man. The women epitomize the idea of safe sex. From previous observations, the women are discontent with the beings around them. The females do not trust the pigs because the pigs are not â€Å"safe†. In this case, not being safe means not using their condom. This brings in the question of the trustfulness of man and the product itself. A man who chooses to use a condom shows that he can be trusted and is believed to be responsible.The words that appear on this advertisement: â€Å"Evolve. Use the most trusted name in condoms every time. † is declaring a statement that if an individual uses condom, Evolve by Trojan, then he will be â€Å"evolved† from a pig to a man and is â€Å"trusted†. This in fers that if you use the trusted name brand of condoms then women would be willing to entrust them with themselves. The thought that they will be safe and unharmed from any type of sexually transmitted diseases makes the woman feel protected. However, the representation of the advertisement comes into question.If their product is â€Å"most trusted†, what is the validity in their product when they portray women and men in such a manner? As it can be seen in the advertisement, the women and man portrayed here are all considered to be beautiful, according to today’s standards. All of the females and male have approximately the same body shape and type, tall and skinny. Although the initial impression of the advertisement asserts the idea of becoming a beautiful being, Trojan also seems to be only marketing to a certain type of people. This conveys a message to the viewers that only people who are beautiful are allowed to use this product.Men, who are stout-like and short , as conveyed through the pigs, are not considered as real men who do use condoms. Consequently, this advertisement exposes the idea of body image: only beautiful people use the Trojan condoms. If Trojan portrays man as an animal, then it shows the implication that Trojan themselves have not yet â€Å"evolved† from their ideas. If they are able to come up with ideas such as these to convey to the audience, it shows that they have not yet evolved from being a â€Å"thoughtless seller† to a more evolved â€Å"inventor† to capture the attention of their consumers.Their idea of marketing to the audience is by using the theme of â€Å"sex sells†. If we are able to transform from such implications and move on to new ideas that better portrays society, then we are able to evolve into a new level. Every day, many industries are trying to develop new ideas to convey their messages or to sell their products to the consumers in the market. Some of these advertisemen ts are sold to numerous magazines and television stations. Whoever the viewers may be, they all range from different ages, cultures, and body types.In order for a company to be considered as â€Å"evolved†, such as understanding their own view and also the consumer’s view, they first have to discover their reasons as to why and whom they are portraying their message to. They have to first realize that their promotion will not be judged on a first look, but also pertaining to its hidden significance. If they claim their product is a certain way, such as Trojan has claimed, then they should be responsible to uphold their reputation as a well as to how they have portrayed their advertisement as a whole.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Though the book “A Man without a Country”

Though the book â€Å"A Man without a Country† is written in funny way, it has a serious message for those who are concerned about humanity in general and America in particular. It intimately expresses the author’s deep anguish at the prevailing situation in the United States despising the Bush administration and its policies. Kurt Vonnegut in his own kidding and humorous style strongly condemns the Americans’ lust for oil. He laments at the inhuman administration that has dehumanized millions of people in the name of race and religion. He criticizes the unthinking and uncaring attitude of people in damaging the environment. He is not quite hopeful of a great future for the coming generations given the indifferent and reckless attitude of the present people. He says, â€Å"I know of very few people who are dreaming of a world for their grandchildren†. Using humor as a physiological response to the fear, he expresses his deep concern for the future generations and his total disregard for the people who are in the positions of power causing loss to people and to the green earth. He strongly advocates that everyone should save his own and others’ lives and be honorable. The title of the Book A Man without a Country, with the sub-title â€Å"A Memoir of Life in George W Bush's America† is a collection of small essays, speeches and interviews despising the Bush administration. Fitting the definition of a memoir, the book comments on the incidents happened during administration of famous personality President Bush. The author calls himself a man without a country except for the librarians as he is quite disgusted with the present day Americans who present themselves as proud and pitiless war lovers. It is clear that he does not like to be associated with people who have dehumanized millions and millions of human beings in the name of religion and race. The book consists of intimate and informal conversations of an eighty year old man about the affairs of the day urging the people to save themselves and the earth and to be honorable.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Autism and Mental Retardation Essay

Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. Children with autism are unresponsive to others, uncommunicative, repetitive, and rigid their symptoms usually appear before the age of three. An autistic individual will have difficulty sustaining employment, accomplishing household responsibilities, and leading independent lives. Furthermore, they express having problems displaying closeness and empathy and have limited interests and activities. The characteristics seem to be pronounced as indifferent in physical care and affectionate expressive interest in those who are taking care of them. Verbal communication and language impairments and inability to use speech are often primary features of autism. Some autistic individuals may exhibit Echolalia a echoing of phrases used without apparent understanding. Some may even repeat sentences a week later, this is called delayed echolalia. Their variation of speech difficulties include; paranormal reversal, difficulty in naming objects, lack of verbal understanding and use of suitable ton e in their voice while talking. Some noticeable characteristics that often expose autism are their lack of imagination while playing, rigid, abnormal and repetitive behaviors, failure to accept environmental change and obsession with animate things and inanimate things. They express repetitive and unusual motor movements like flapping their hands, and odd facial expressions. Below is a checklist the DSM has provided for a guideline to diagnosis of autism. 1. A total of at least six items from the following groups of symptoms: A. Impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (a) Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction. (b) Failure to develop peer relationships appropriately. (c) Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people. (d) Lack of social or emotional reciprocity. B. Impairment in communication, as manifested by at least one of the  following: (a) Delay in or total lack of, the development of spoken language. (b) In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to start or sustain a conversation with others. (c) Stereotyped and repetitive use of language, or idiosyncratic language. (d) Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play. C. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) Abnormal preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest. (b) Inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals. (c) Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting). (d) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. 2. Prior to 3 years of age, delay or abnormal functioning in either social interaction, language, or symbolic or imaginative play. 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? The sociocultural model lacks support and the theory suggests that autism could progress through particular personality characteristics of the parents. These characteristics generated unfavorable development and contributed to the development of the disorder. This theory is no longer considered. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? The treatment that is helpful for a person with autism is behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration. Psychotropic drugs and certain vitamins have at times aided when joined with other approaches. Behavioral therapies consist of therapist using modeling and operant conditioning. In modeling they exhibit a chosen behavior and direct the individual to reproduce it. In operant conditioning, they reinforce such behaviors, first by shaping them, breaking them down so they can be learned step by step and then rewarding each step visibly and consistently. These measures often create more purposeful behaviors and long term achievements. Communication Training is a therapy that is often taught to those individuals who remain speechless. They are taught other forms of communication, including sign language and simultaneous communication, a method combining sign language and speech. They also learn  to use augmentative communication systems, such as communication boards or computers that use pictures, symbols, or written words to represent objects or needs. In some programs teachers try to recognize essential underlined forcers rather than insignificant ones like food or candy. They encourage participation in choosing an item they want and then encouraging them to ask for it with questions like; what’s that? Where is it? And whose is it? The studies have found that child- directed interventions increase self-initiated communications, language development, and social participation. Parenting training programs train parents so they can apply behavioral techniques at home. They are provided with instruction manuals, and teachers do home visits. Individual therapy and support groups help parents of autistic children deal with their own emotions and needs. Community integration is a great tool for autistic individuals, In today’s school and home based programs there are programs for autism children to teach self-help, self-management, and living, social, and work skills as early as possible to help children function better in their communities. There have been many workshops and group homes available now for teenagers and young adults with autism to help them become a part of their communities. These types of programs give parents a since of relief as their child will always need supervision. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: The DSM-IV-TR gives guidelines to the diagnosis of mental retardation. Individuals need to display general intellectual functioning that is well below average, in combination with poor adaptive behavior. As well as having a low IQ score of 70 or below. There should be notable difficulty in communication, home living, self-direction, work or safety. These symptoms should appear before the age of 18. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. Sociocultural biased in testing that might pose a problem for assessing mental retardation is IQ testing. IQ testing in some children has caused them to be labeled retarded when they had trouble speaking the language at a level that would establish their IQ. 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most  people with mental retardation fall? Mild level – IQ ranges from 50 – 70. â€Å"They are sometimes called â€Å"educably retarded† because they can benefit from schooling and can support themselves as adults† (Cromer, 2011). 7. What are the main types of biological causes of mental retardation? The main types of biological causes of mental retardation are Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. 8. What is the only way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome? The only way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome is to not drink during pregnancy. 9. What are normalization and mainstreaming? Normalization and mainstreaming are educational terms; they reference the settlement of mentally retarded individuals within ordered classrooms. This is to make sure these individuals can intermingle and learn along with typical fellow students. The school systems have made adjustments and adaptations to their core curriculum and the teaching given to the mentally retarded child. 10. What is your opinion about mainstreaming and normalization for children and adults with autism or mental retardation? I agree with mainstreaming for a person who is suffering from autism or mental retardation. Autism runs in my family, and I have a cousin who is the same as age as I am and she did not receive mainstreaming when she was younger and she is severely handicapped I believe because of this. On the other hand, our classrooms are overcrowded and teachers are experiencing challenges within the so called â€Å"normal† population. Labeling these individuals at such an early age incorporates stereotyping within the classroom and can cause even more hardship for those individuals. My ex-husband’s brother had an autistic child who is thriving and even attending college classes at a University. He did have special schooling and went to private therapies. His success was through behavioral therapy and parenting training. I would say mainstreaming should be considered on the level of the disorder. If the disorder is extreme, then consideration should be given to the teacher and her other thirty something students. It is a hard question when in fact someone could be mildly retarded or highly retarded and the school system really needs to know just where the individual stands with their language ability and social ability. Resource: Comer, R. J. (2011). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY.