Monday, September 30, 2019

Junior Deputy

Derick Krones Junior Deputy During Junior Deputy this year, I learned that smoking is bad for your health. And, alcohol is bad for you, too. Smoking causes tar to build up in your lungs and can lead to cancer. I know cancer is a bad disease because I have lost my grandpa and grandma to cancer. Alcohol kills brain cells. It is important to learn and if you do not have all your brain cells, you will not be as smart which means you will not do as well in life.I liked getting to wear the drunk goggles in Junior Deputy. It was fun to see how it makes you feel to try to walk with the goggles on. It was a nice break in the day to get to learn about other things in Junior Deputy at school rather than math, science, communication arts, and social studies. The part of Junior Deputy I liked the least was how long the pre/post tests were to take. There were hard questions on the test and it took time to think about the answers.I know you have to take tests to see what you do and do not know, but it was my least favorite part of Junior Deputy. Actually getting to wear the drunk goggles made you feel what it was like to be drunk so you know you do not want to drink. Junior Deputy taught me to make the right choices and not do drugs,alcohol or smoke. It is important to stay healthy and do your best in life. Junior Deputy helps explain how to make good choices and to stay healthy.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

On what grounds have Liberals defended democracy

Liberals, no matter classical or modern, believe in small state. As Thomas Paine put it: â€Å"Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil†. This concept links nicely with the idea of democracy, which literally means â€Å"rule by people†. Liberals have defended democracy on the grounds that people must have a way of protecting themselves against the government and its actions.This type of democracy is also referred to as protective democracy. Moreover, democracy opens an ability for people to choose. In a pure democracy, for instance, people would vote on every occasion ND policy, hence the core liberal idea of individualism would flourish in its fullest. However, in modern society it is practically impossible to have pure democracy, so we have to resort to participatory democracy.This still support the idea of individualism, as each vote counts towards the end result. Moreover, democracy improves political participation as people know that their voices will be heard. It also encourages political education in order to make the best choice of the candidate, which links with the idea of reason and the core period in liberalism's history of enlightenment.By being rational and self-seeking, individuals will want the best for themselves, hence they will seek to vote for the candidate that suits their needs and beliefs best, In order to do so, they will have to read, debate or learn about them by other means, which will increase the overall Intelligence of Individuals and therefore help them achieve their full potential, which Is what modern liberals believe is the main function of the government. Talking about modern liberalism, they have also defended democracy on the grounds that It promotes pluralism In our society.Democracy gives many competing groups, such as political parties or pressure groups, a political voice, which connects those to the political system and hence maintains political stability. Stability Is further promoted I n terms of Individuals: they all have a vote, and even If their candidate looses the election, a rational Individual will understand that the candidate who won had the majority support. In conclusion, liberals have defended democracy as It adheres to their core principles of Individualism and reason, as well as their view of the role of the government. ICC will increase the overall intelligence of individuals and therefore help them achieve their full potential, which is what modern liberals believe is the main defended democracy on the grounds that it promotes pluralism in our society. Maintains political stability. Stability is further promoted in terms of individuals: they all have a vote, and even if their candidate looses the election, a rational individual liberals have defended democracy as it adheres to their core principles of individualism and reason, as well as their view of the role of the government.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Time Bank

Time bank is a unique organisation that holds vast amount of knowledge and skills belonging to its customer. The way time bank operates is by allowing individuals to exchange their knowledge, skills with others. The concept of the Time Bank is based on the fact that people are all individually different, we all have different types of knowledge and we all have different set of skills, no one is good at everything, the typical situation is that we only have the capacity to be good at certain things and not all things.In a world without Time Bank, we have to pay for things we can’t do, for example I am not an expert with computers, if my computer breaks down then I would have to pay for someone to fix it. However, with the existence of Time Bank, I can exchange a skill which I am good at for someone else’s help with the repair of my computer. To illustrate this example more specifically, If a member of the Time Bank has spent two hours repairing my computer then that pers on would have banked two hours worth of time with the Bank, in another word, that person will have two hours worth of credit.When that person needs help with something he has difficulty with, he is entitled to two hours free help from another individual. So individuals can build up their credit by helping others with things that they are good at. This way, people can save time and money in dealing with difficult tasks. It is clear that Time Bank offers a service that many needs, but no such provider exists in the current market in Colchester. However, as Time Bank is such a new concept promotion of the Bank is vital. Effective promotional method needs to be used to introduce people to this new concept.I shall look into these methods in the rest of this essay, but before doing so, it is important to assess who would use Time Bank, i. e. its target audience. 2. Target Audience: One of the key reason that people will want to use Time Bank will be because that they can save money, from this it follows that Time Bank is unlikely to attract very wealthy individuals. Further, it is likely that only people who can offer knowledge or skill in return will use the Bank, this will mean that the younger and older groups are probably excluded from the target audience, as they are likely to be limited with the help they can offer.So, main target group of Time Bank is likely to be working individuals and possibly students. So, we have to have this in mind when selecting the promotion methods for the Bank. 3. Advertising: Placing adverts on local newspapers, radios and internet, magazines and possibly on television may be a good way to build the awareness of the Bank’s presence. Yellow pages is another idea, however, with the expansion of the internet Yellow pages is not as much used by people as before. So, instead, it may be a better idea to place advert on the internet, for example, Yell Colchester.With newspapers and radios it will be a good idea to place the advert on popular Colchester local papers and local radio stations such as BBC Essex and Heart Essex. In terms of magazines, if possible, it would be a good idea to select magazines that our target audience is most likely to read, something like magazines advising on money matters or D. I. Y. magazines (as it is likely that people who are interested in D. I. Y will find it more enjoyable to exchange their skills and bank their time with the Time Bank). Putting up adverts on the internet is also a good idea, an excellent website to place advert is www. sk. com, as people who go on to ask. com will normally be in the need for some kind of help, so an advert on this website will capture some of our key audiences. It may be a better idea to take advantage of free advertising, such as placing adverts on Gumtree Colchester. Putting up posters in University campus may also be a good idea, students are likely to be a key user of the Time Bank, the reason being that students do not earn any income as a result they are likely to prefer to save money by using the Time Bank.Sponsoring a University newsletter or website is another idea to build awareness in the student market, the sponsorship will enable Time Bank’s logo to appear and be seen by students. In terms of working individuals, it may be a good idea to put up posters in job searching agencies such as Reed, or paying for an advertising space on job searching websites. Distributing leaflets is another possible idea, we could position few leaflet distributors on busy locations in Colchester, such as city centre during busy times such as weekends. 4. Publicity:Publicity is a great way to promote the Time Bank, as most publicity can be done for free and more details of the Time Bank can be exposed compared to the advertising option. Writing articles on topic related to the Time Bank: The Time Bank can write an article relating to saving time and money and try to place it on to publications that our target audience mi ght read, as mentioned before, magazine relating to money matters or D. I. Y. magazines are possible options. To target students it may be a good idea to write articles for school newsletters.However, the problem that we may encounter with this promotion method is that there is no guarantee that the article we write will be accepted and published by our preferred magazines. So, to enhance the chance of our article being published it is a good idea to provide a well written article. Magazines, tends to have a long lead time, writing articles for internet magazines might be a better option, as there are higher demand for articles with internet magazines. Newspaper is another source we can supply our articles to.Newspapers have a much shorter lead time than magazines and they are often looking for materials. So, it may be a good idea looking to writing an article to local Colchester newspapers. Press releases: Sending out press releases to local newspapers is another effective promotio nal tool. However, the press release must be newsworthy in order for it to be published by local newspapers. The fact that there is no other organisation that is providing the same type of service as the Time Bank will make the press release newsworthy. Online Forums:Posting message on online forums is a cost effective way of promotion. There will be tons of D. I. Y forums, money savings forums, student forums etc on the net, posting messages or answering queries posted by other people will promote the Time Bank. When answering queries, we can post a link of the time bank’s website or/ and explain the workings of the Time Bank in the process of answering. www. Ask. com is another great internet place to get free advertising; free advertising can be gained by answering queries posted by people on the Q & A page.Try to get an interview slot on local radio shows: It will be ideal is a interview slot can be secured on either Heart Essex or BBC Essex, as these two stations are quite popular stations it will mean that they will reach out to a wide rage of audience. An interview discussing the how the Time Bank works will not only give Time Bank free advertising but also can enable people a better understanding of what Time Ban is and how it works. And this is important due to the fact that the Time Bank is such a new concept. 5. Conclusion – evaluation of the promotional methods:In the above sections I have discussed many possible promotional methods for the Time Bank. Each method have its pros and cons; advertising on the television, radio, newspapers, internet and magazines are an effective way of reaching a wide audience and is a good way of building brand awareness of Time Bank. But, such way of advertising can be costly. It was mentioned that it is possible to get free advertising from certain websites such as Gumtree Colchester, it is suggested that free advertising offered by websites should be taken full advantage of.I then looked into ways of promotion by gaining free publicity on magazines, local newspapers, local radios and internets. I think that emphasis should be placed on these types of promotion, the reason being that such methods are cost effective and it will enable people to get a better understanding of the Time Bank. Time Bank, being a new thing in the market will mean that careful explanations on the concept and workings will be needed for people to fully understand. With the advertising methods, only limited information can be displayed, but with publicity much more detail can be introduced.So, the best way to promote in my view is to select a few paid advertising methods that can target our key audiences, such as putting a paid advert on ask. com and on yell. Colchester and take advantage of free online advertising as much as possible to build Time Bank’s brand awareness. A big part of the promotion should be based on publicity, efforts should be devoted to try to get articles and press releases published in relevant magazines, and newspapers etc and get interview slots on popular local radio stations such as Heat Essex and BBC Essex.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Code of Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Code of Ethics - Essay Example Neither the physician nor the nurse examined this form as it also contained a medical power of attorney for healthcare. In addition, Mr. E was responsible for the decisions he made. On following the Texas State Law regarding the medical power of attorney, Mr. B was still not allowed to make decisions for Mr. E, unless he was unable to formulate decisions for himself. â€Å"The desire of a qualified patient supersedes the effect of a directive.†Ã‚   (â€Å"Health and safety code†, 1991) Mr. H., Mr. E’s nephew, would also never been approached to give consent regarding Mr. E’s health since Mr. E had not handed permission to his nephew to get involved with his medical condition. In simple words, Mr. H had not been accordance a go on matters pertaining Mr. E’s medical records and treatment plan and hence approaching him was illegal. This violated the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). This policy clearly indicates that an indiv idual’s medical information should not be shared or discussed with other individuals not involved in the management of the patient when he or she had not given any consent. By so, Mr. E’s privacy rights were violated by the nurses and physicians and hence the matter was reported to the facility ethical officer. In problem could have been avoided easily by the nurses and physicians by simply asking Mr. E if they would speak to his nephew concerning his medical information. ... In provision two of The American Nurses Association, state â€Å"the nurses first commitment is to the patient.† Nursing World (2009) supports either of the above mentioned possibilities, for instance, in Mr. E’s case; decision to be taken was for the interest of the patient. The deciding factors in cases like this entirely should involve the patient’s interests. Nursing autonomy states that nurses’ decisions should be based on what is ethical and moral. The latter decision would not be a choice in such a circumstance. Legally, the nurse should have shared liability in any negative outcome Mr. E experienced as a result of his intubation. In this situation, permission was obtained from Mr. H, a non-qualified individual and hence Mr. E’s privacy was violated and in addition, forced to succumb to procedure he never consented in written. It is always good to remember that patient’s could at all times have the final words pertaining procedures and accorded treatment. â€Å"The principal of autonomy upholds respect for decision making capacity of patients.† (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994). As a strict patient advocate, the nurse should at least have explained to Mr. E that placement of the ventilator could have been for a short while till when his pneumonia improves, then from there removed. If Mr. E. could still have refused intubation, then the nurse could have supported Mr. E’s rights for refusing the procedure. The Texas Standards of Nursing Practice clearly states that the nurse’s responsibility is to â€Å"collaborate with the client, members of the healthcare team, and, when appropriate, the client’s significant other(s) in the interest of the client’s healthcare.† (â€Å"Texas

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Practice Theories and Micro-therories Coursework

Practice Theories and Micro-therories - Coursework Example 166). Thus, nursing theories made nursing care simpler and easy to understand through theoretical representation. From the author’s viewpoint, nursing theories serve as the strongest foundation of nursing which guide nursing actions and standards of practice. Without this, the author believes that nurses’ care would be unsystematic, of low quality, and not holistic. In line with this, the author will discuss types of nursing theories, particularly practice theories and micro-range theories. Furthermore, this paper will focus on micro-range theory of learned responses in managing multiple chronic diseases through Corbin and Strauss’s chronic illness trajectory model along with Bury’s concept of biographical disruption. This paper will also analyze the importance of nursing theory to the nursing profession and the relationship of nursing theory to nursing leadership, nursing education, and nursing informatics. Analysis of the Importance of Nursing theory to the Nursing Profession Nursing theories are essential to the nursing profession as they guides nursing practice and research (Houser, 2008, p. 174). Nursing theories are significantly related to nursing practice because theory is shaped by practice and practice evolved because of the development in theories. The development of nursing theories has also provided means to establish nursing as a profession. According to Meleis (2012), nursing theories provide nurses with the framework and goals for assessment, diagnosis, and intervention (p. 36). Each aspect of nursing care is grounded to nursing theories to enhance critical thinking and decision-making related to care and to effectively manage patient’s situations and conditions. Thus, nursing theories are important in the nursing process. Through theoretical perspective, nursing practice becomes more efficient, effective, and goal-directed (Meleis, 2012, p. 35). Since nursing theories serve as the blueprint of practice, extran eous areas or activities are minimized leading to conservation of time, energy, and talent of nurses in practice. In this case, nursing goals and nursing knowledge or theories are clearly articulated which may result in effective seeking and responding of patients and families to care being rendered by the nurse. It is not only in nursing practice that nursing theories are of great importance but to the research body as well. Nursing theories have the same degree of importance to nursing research as they guide nursing research by limiting what questions to ask and what methods to use in answering the research questions. Both the nursing theories and nursing research have cyclical relationship because the result of the research can be used to verify, modify, disprove, or support a theoretical proposition that can promote growth and enrichment of nursing theory as a scholarly discipline (Meleis, 2012, p. 35). Upon analysis of the importance of nursing theories, the author has learned two essential fields in relation to nursing theories: research and practice. For the purpose of this paper, the author will discuss in the next texts practice theories, micro-theories, and the key concepts and

Graduate Labour Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Graduate Labour Market - Essay Example As the report declares in its effort to improve and modernise public services, UK government has created more job opportunities for graduates. Some of the sectors that depict an increase in the rate of employment include public administration, health and education, construction as well as business and finance. It is important to note that the UK economic and political developments have made the region to be one of the countries that have the lowest rates of unemployment in Europe. According to Association of Graduate Recruiters (AGR), approximately 30% of the UK graduates are highly demanded in foreign countries including European region based on the extensive training undertaken by universities. This paper declares that the manager oversees the implementation of effective use of internet as a way of promoting and advertising of the products. Other vital duties of the manager includes evaluation and tracking of online marketing strategies, identifying new online marketing tactics as well as collaborating with personnel who are responsible for developing websites. Due to the stiff competition in the international market, companies in UK and abroad are emulating e-marketing in order to attain a competitive edge. This means that there exist more job opportunities for students who choose Online Marketing Manager as their future career. Individuals intending to become online marketing managers should posses a degree in marketing and have some experience of internet marketing. In addition, it is essential for one to have a good knowledge of English language and proper communication skills (Laermer, 2007). Communication skills are vital since the marketing managers should have adequ ate knowledge on how to address the needs of their clients. Depending with the size of an organization an Online Marketing Manager should be at least 23 years old and with an experience of 3- 4 years in a marketing department. Even though most of the marketing

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Democratic and Prescriptive Instructional Strategies Research Paper

Democratic and Prescriptive Instructional Strategies - Research Paper Example According to the Alternative Educational Resource Organization, a democratic approach of education is one whereby students or learners have the autonomy in scheduling their daily actions and that there is no impartiality and undemocratic decision making among the students and teachers. (Bennett, 2001) A prescriptive approach is one whereby students are presented with the course outline of what they will learn and what they are expected to do. It involves student getting their learning results from what the teachers are saying and from the existing literature that is prescribed by the teacher or the instructor. In essence prescriptive approach is a strategy where the students rely heavily on what their teachers will say and the literature they are directed to use. The differences between the two approaches are the freedom given to the learners to make decisions. We find that in a prescriptive approach there is no excellent environment for learning because students are supposed to do what their tutors do without any alteration. Students are always forced to do activities that they are not comfortable with because there is no interaction between the teacher and the students hence the morale of the students is always low and tend to perform poorly in their course work. While in a democratic approach there is greater interaction among the students themselves and between the students and their teachers thus opening avenues of generating new knowledge and it is likely that students will be satisfied with the outcome. Another difference is that in democratic approach a lot of emphases is directed to the generation of new knowledge while in the prescriptive approach students are required to gain from the instructions of their teachers and from the ex isting literature or textbooks. An example of a democratic strategy is the use of debates and an example of a prescriptive approach is the use of lectures as ways of learning. (Fraser, 1996) This strategy involves dividing the students in class into a various grouping that will represent certain points of view on the identified issue which is always the most compromising subject. In the division of groups, they are those who support the argument, that is the proponents or those for, and those who oppose the issue referred to as those against or the critics. Students can involve themselves in the debates through character or even assuming different roles. An example of an issue to be subjected to debate may be, Does globalization leads to prosperity or impoverishment One group of the students will be expected to support the argument that globalization brings prosperity while the other group is expected to take a stance against globalization that it brings impoverishment. Debates can lead to a generation of new knowledge because by arguing it out a point, there is an opportunity of integrating ideas and hence conclusions arrived at being useful in the learning process.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Time Management Matrix-Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Time Management Matrix-Leadership - Essay Example As such, the time management matrix may arguably be considered an effective time management resource thereby invoking the importance of its analysis. The first quadrant comprises of urgent and important items such as a crying baby and some calls. This implies that items in the first quadrant require immediate attention and cannot be postponed. The second quadrant is a composition of not urgent but important items such as exercise and vacation. Items in the second quadrant may be regarded long term due to their lack of urgency but should not be neglected. According to Covey, items in the second quadrant are somewhat neglected, perhaps, because they are not urgent. Nonetheless, it important to note that efficacy is achieved by working both strategically and tactically and items in quadrant two ensure this. For example, exercising is not urgent but it is an important aspect of healthy living. The third quadrant entails items that are urgent but may be regarded as not important such as other calls. This implies that quadrant three items could be eliminated but people feel the need to hold on to them. As such, these items consume the largest portion of people’s time thereby corrupting effective time management. Finally, the fourth quadrant is a composition of items that are neither important nor urgent such as trivia. Quadrant four items are generally those that people take as breaks from important activities hence they can be considered to add relatively little value. Therefore, quadrant four items may be eliminated in an effort to avoid wasting time. The time management matrix arguably provides a proper strategy of managing time effectively hence can be useful tool in leadership. After analyzing and comprehending the application of time management matrix, leaders should take time to categorize their different commitments into respective quadrants. Additionally, after categorizing commitments, calculations of percentage of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Sturken and Cartwright's Account of Ideological Considerations Essay

Sturken and Cartwright's Account of Ideological Considerations - Essay Example Though films and television programs still use similar techniques as those from the OJ Simpson era, News Media at least must have gotten better, right? The question is both yes and no. In the recent Trayvon Martin scandal, than man that admitted to killing him, George Zimmerman, had many of his own pictures portrayed throughout the media. While media did not make the explicitly editorial decisions they made in the OJ Simpson case. This essay will not discuss the particulars of the horrible tragedy that occurred on the night that Trayvon Martin was killed, but rather the editorial choices that occurred in the portrayal of George Zimmerman. The choice of photographs used on television or news portrayals of the man, however, were chosen specifically to underline his supposed guilt or innocence. The most commonly used image of George Zimmerman, especially immediately after the tragedy, was a mug shot for an unrelated incident some days before, presented below. The choice to use this imag e immediately was somewhat understandable: mug shots are quite accessible to news media, and this would have been one of the only pictures available in the opening hours of the tragedy. Quickly, however, some other images began becoming available, including the one presented left. Both pictures represent George Zimmerman`s likeness fairly well, and they even have somewhat similar framing. Upon the second, and many other photo`s wide use in news media, however, the mug shot image continued to be used quite frequently. The choice of which photos to used represented an ideological slant on the case in fairly clear ways. The initial photograph of George Zimmerman is clearly identifiable as a mug shot taken by police during an investigation. There are very few other cases in which a subject would be framed so narrowly (as for an identification) on a white background with a flat, unsmiling face. Furthermore, and unofortunately for Zimmerman, he was wearing a particularly brightly colored orange shirt on the day that the photograph was taken. Orange is constantly used throughout American prisons as a way to identify prisoners should they escape, make them readily viewable from a distance if the correctional officer needs to see the, and so forth. An unsmiling face, as is used in a mug-shot, also frequently makes people look cold or mean, because there is a social more that people in photographs smile. Finally, the last aspect is the color of Zimmerman`s skin. Zimmerman, a white Hispanic, had parts of his skin look much darker because of the contrast from the glare on his cheeks, which also highlighted his black hair. As ironic as it is to racially profile a person accused of killing through racial profiling, many viewers probably connected Zimmerman`s ethnic heritage, especially in the context of a mug shot, with criminality, deviancy, violence or other social ills. Zimmerman`s second and other subsequent photos differ greatly. He is smiling, for one, and the frame o f the photo is slightly wider, making it look more like a year book photo or something else. He is also much more nicely dressed, in a suit, and has a much more uniform skin tone, making it look less dark than in the mug shot. Gone is the probably villainous person who certainly got arrested and generally looks ``no good,``

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Essay on Mark Twain a+ Grade Essay Example for Free

Essay on Mark Twain a+ Grade Essay Few people across america have not more than once come across the name of Mark Twain, a name spoken throughout the country for the 100 years since his death. Mark Twain is the best example of a great american author, foremost for his book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Few people past the sixth grade have not at least heard of Tom sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, Proving the impact this piece has had on America. Life wasn’t always peachy for Mark Twain though, Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Twain went through a cacophony of hardships on his way to fame. His father died when he was only eleven, and he was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament. He later got a job as a journalist which got him on his way to becoming an esteemed writer. Life after fame however brought more heartbreak than good with the death of his wife and later his wife. He took much pleasure in his four-legged friends however, and is well know as an avid cat lover. Twain is most well known for his piece The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It is an american classic, portraying young Tom sawyer and his friend Huck Finn in an adventure, ending in the capture of Injun Joe, a man who murdered the doctor and who had a cave full of treasures. Mark Twain pulls the reader in whilst keeping attention with chapters teeming with action, adventure, suspense and romance. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was followed by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, an exciting sequel that received just as much if not more praises from readers across america. Some may wonder what possessed Mark Twain as to why he became a writer, when the answer is quite clear. Upon his father’s death in 1846, Young Samuel Clemens was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament, in exchange for board and clothing. He then became a typesetter, setting the print for various newspapers in his hometown.He did that for another four years before writing small articles for his brother Orion’s small newspaper. Clemens moved to Nevada and worked as a miner in Virginia City before finding work at the local paper, The Territorial Enterprise, where he first used his pen name. Mark Twain was taken from the steamboat mans measuring cry that signaled water was deep enough for safe passage. Life after Fame was both sweet and sour for Mark Twain at this point. Though he rarely ever invited visitors into his home, Mark Twain truly enjoyed the company of his cats. It was even noted in an ad from Royal Crown Cola in the 1940s about Twains disposition and his love for his cats. It is stated that he lived with up to nineteen at one time. In 1905 one of Mark Twains cats, a big gorgeous black cat named Bambino, ran away and Twain was devastated. He offered a reward seeking the return of his cat. The cat was found by Twains secretary. Sadly, Twains last years were marked with depression, brought on by the death of a daughter, his wife and close friends. He began his autobiography in 1906, and it is unsure when it was actually finished after its recent discovery. He died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Redding, Connecticut, where he was buried on his wife’s family plot. It is indisputable the impact Mark Twain’s writing has had on society as a whole, his name scattered across america and known by millions. His two most popular books, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn have gone down in history as priceless american classics, and continue to be treasured more than one-hundred years after their creation.Fame and fortune was bittersweet for him however, and though he took much pride and joy in his esteemed feline friends, he went through a period of extreme loss shortly before his own death. It is a well known fact, that Mark Twain has left his mark on American History, and will be remembered for centuries to come.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

A Study On Triumph Of Will

A Study On Triumph Of Will The ultimate aim of documentary is to find the perfect way of representing the real is what Stella Bruzzi believes is the function of a documentary. As she states it herself, the ‘aim is to ‘find the perfect way of ‘representing reality. The three underlined words are themselves hypothetical terms that are not certain, hence this is the first indication that documentary might not necessarily achieve its aim. Documentary style of films are still under debate as to how ‘real can they be, this probably why Stella Bruzzi uses the word ‘find instead of a more commanding and certain word. Therefore, what is really a documentary according to different theorists? John Grierson, the first writer to use documentary as a term in his review of Robert Flahertys Moana, came up with his famous dictum that documentary is ‘the creative interpretation of actuality. Griersons essayFirst Principles of Documentary argued that documentary was cinemas potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form; that the original actor and original scene are better guides than their fiction counterparts to interpreting the modern world; and that materials thus taken from the raw can be more real than the acted article. Contrary to Bruzzis idea of ‘representing reality, Grierson believes in ‘interpreting it. Interpretation can be in form of re-enactment. So the question that arises is how realistic is a documentary that has actors and scenes â€Å"guiding† the flow of the film? Any re-enactment or borrowed situations can be manipulated to reflect the directors idea, which leaves hardly any space for 100% reality. The term ‘documentary stems from the verb ‘to document to convey information on the basis of proof and evidence to support it, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary. In the realm of films and cinema, a documentary is a film that is an attempt, in one fashion or another, toshowreality as itreallyis. Another way of defining documentary is the necessity to capture life as it is as it naturally appears. It needs to be filmed surreptitiously, while the goal is to capture lifes unawareness and natural beauty.The term has expanded to encompass many additional aspects than its original definition. ‘Documentaries was a term used to describe movies shot on film stock, which is a term used to describe the discovery of celluloid a product much less fragile than the paper film previously used. It has now come to involve video and digital productions, whether for private use, made-for-TV or for the big screen. The continuing goal of documentaries is to constantly work to identify a film making practice that captures life as it truly is, create a cinematic tradition that remains interesting and lively, and finally, to gain and maintain a connection with the audience. There are several types of documentary, but for this essay, I will pit two completely different ‘documentaries and analysis which of these two, make it closest to the above different definitions. Triumph of the Will a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl and Super Size Me is a documentary by Morgan Spurlock are the two documentaries I will take into account because their genres are completely different from each other, and this could lead to an interesting analysis of the documentaries purpose and what they attain in the end. Triumph of the Will/ Triumph des Willens In 1934 Hitler suggested that Leni Riefenstahl film the party rally of that year. Hitler wanted a first-rate filmmaker to direct the film of the party rally, having insisted several years earlier that he wanted to exploit the film as an instrument of propaganda in such a way that the audience will be clearly aware that they are going to see a political film. It nauseates me when I find political propaganda under the cloak of art. Let it either be art or politics. Riefenstahl demanded that the film be made by her own company rather than by the Ministry for Peoples Enlightenment and Propaganda. Hitler agreed to this demand and promised not to interfere with the filming; he granted her complete freedom to make the film she desired. Although ostensibly her company financed and distributed Triumph of the Will, there is little doubt that the Nazi party actually provided the funds as well as the setting and every facility possible for unimpeded film recording of the event. This reflects gre atly on the biasness that is present in the film. Hitlers SA and SS were known for generating fear, and even if promised to have interference in her documentary, if Riefenstahl did show something negative about the Nazi Party, it could only mean either her disappearance or concentration camp. Moreover, the title of the film was suggested by Hitler himself, implying that after all it was not independent of any political pressure. The camera crew used thirty cameras and were dressed as SA men so that they would not be noticeable in the crowd. Although there are at least twelve sequences in the film where the wary spectator can detect cameras at work, in general the crew working the film is very well disguised. Triumph of The Will (1935) is not only a masterpiece entirely on its own, divorced from political or propagandist considerations, but in its emotional manipulation of the audience represents the very heart of what propaganda is all about. (Barsam, 1992, 130) Riefenstahl is able to create a glorified representation of the NSDAP, or Nazi party, with the use of a music score that invents Hitler as heroic. Her ability to represent a political party so triumphantly is noted in the moving and chilling pieces of cinematography when Hitler gives his final speech and compares his party to a holy order. She captures an essence far purer than the NSDAP, and in a way does more than justice to the partys attempts of propaganda. On the other hand, her achievements in portraying the NSDAP as glamorous can be seen as misrepresenting and a line can be drawn between fact and fiction as to, whether her glorifications are unjust and morally wrong. For the Nazis, the euphoria of a perfect Germany according to them can be portrayed with proper film aesthetics but without directly referring to the contemporary society of the 1930s. The what it would be like if Nazis ruled agenda can be portrayed with the use of abstract visuals and other techniques as long as the real is not referred to, as societies in Germany were not of pure race. The idea of creating a pure race and portraying this in a film is almost mythical, yet alone absurd. In order to portray an Aryan world blatant lies and imaginative discourse would be called for. The ethical implications behind this, is that the people themselves must change in order to create this ideal society. The overly repeated Flag Bearer image depicts symbolism connected to Nazism; the inclusion of a flag bearing the Nazi Swastika symbol represents the militarized power of the party. As a trend in Nazi propaganda, there is enormous emphasis on military symbols in Triumph of the will, triggered deeply felt emotions associated with Germanys former military might. Leni Riefenstahls editing provides an insight into the status of Triumph of the Will as Nazi propaganda. For example, one sequence during Hitlers arrival in Nuremburg is composed of four shots; the first two shots show the old buildings of the city and then a German flag therefore representing the old, traditional Germany. The following two shots depict Hitler and then a Swastika. This sequence typifies how Riefenstahl has represented the Nazi ideology of a return to a mythical epoch by linking the ideals of the traditional dogma with a visionary future. Similarly, before the scene of the city awakening Riefenstahl links a shot of an old church to represent Volakis thought, with the rally camp site to signify the new Germany. Incidentally Hinton suggests that as result of these sequences, Triumph of the Will is more than a document of the 1934 Nazi Party Rally; it is a document of the city of Nuremburg where the viewer gains a sense of the beauty and history of the medieval centre. F urthermore, the use of German and Nazi flags ties in with the use of military symbols inherent in the propaganda of the Third Reich. She also states that; ‘In my cutting room, it was the most difficult work of my life describing the task that took at least five months to fulfil. She explained that she did not care much about chronological accuracy on the screen and that she intuitively tried to find a unifying way to edit the film in a way which would progressively take the viewer from act to act and from impression to impression. With political pressure, adoration for Adolf Hitler, and clearly a propaganda film, Triumph of the will does portray reality in terms of the images used, they are all live and not re-enacted by Riefenstahl. However, it is a biased documentation of the reality. I believe it would have been a real documentary if only there was not so much of glamour shown about the Nazi rallies, and the darker side such as the Holocaust and ghettos were also covered. The latter would have made it a more objective piece of work, making it more of a documentary instead of a propaganda tool. Super Size Me Morgan Spurlock decided to make this documentary to investigate the fast food companies, and the effects of certain fast food chains products, particularly McDonalds, on the health of society. This Documentary explores the United States growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes as well. Morgan decides to eat nothing but McDonalds food for thirty days. He must eat one of everything on the menu at least once, and when asked to super size his meal he must do so. Another stipulation of Morgans experiment is that he can only take 5,000 steps a day to replicate the exercise that most average Americans get on a daily basis. He must also eat three meals a day, no exceptions and if McDonalds doesnt serve it Morgan cant eat it.Morgan enlists three doctors to assist him through his thirty day documentary. A cardiologist, gastroenterologist, and a general practitioner all check him out at the beginning of the experiment which makes it credible because there is science supporting and bringing logi c to the results of the experiment. Critics of the film, including McDonalds, argue that the author intentionally consumed an average of 5,000 calories per day and did not exercise, and that the results would have been the same regardless of the source of overeating. He was eating solely McDonalds food in keeping with the terms of a potential judgment against McDonalds in court documents highlighted at the beginning of the film. The film addresses such objections by highlighting that a part of the reason for Spurlocks deteriorating health was not just the high calorie intake but also the high quantity of fat relative to vitamins and minerals in the McDonalds menu, which is similar in that regard to the nutritional content of the menus of most other U.S. fast-food chains. About 1/3 of Spurlocks calories came from sugar. His nutritionist, Bridget Bennett RD, cited him about his excess intake of sugar from milkshakes and cokes. It is revealed toward the end of the movie that over the course of the diet, he consumed over 30 pounds of sugar, and over 12 lbs. of fat from their food. The nutritional side of the diet was not fully explored in the film because of the closure of the clinic which monitored this aspect during the filming of the movie. Spurlock claimed he was trying to imitate what an average diet for a regular eater at McDonaldsa person who would get little to no exercisewould do to them. Spurlocks intake of 5,000 calories per day was well over twice the recommended daily intake for a sedentary adult male, which would amount to only about 2,300 calories. A typical man consuming as many calories as Spurlock did would gain nearly a pound a day (which is roughly how much Spurlock gained), a rate of weight gain that could not be sustained for long periods. Additionally, Spurlock did not demonstrate or claim that anyone, let alone a substantial number of people, eats at McDonalds three times per day. In fact McDonalds is mentioned during the movie to have two classes of users of their restaurants: There are the Heavy Users, (about 72% of the customers, who eat at their restaurants once or twice a week), and the SUPERHeavy Users (about 22% of the customers, who eat McDonalds 3 or more times a week). But no one was found who ate at McDonalds three times a day. Spurlock said that he was eating in thirty days the amount of fast food most nutritionists suggest someone should eat in eight years. Though Spurlock provokes fear of fast food, he fails to acknowledge that poor diet is not the only cause of obesity, and that the â€Å"toxic environment† he describes is reason enough to consider that the responsibility should in fact be in the corporations hands. What Spurlock does exactly is that he reflects his own ideology. Before going for the experiment and documenting it he was clear as to what he wanted to show by the end of it and worked towards it, hence it can be debated that he made the documentary with his biasness to his idea, and giving more coverage to the latter instead of bringing about more balance reflection such as the influence and pressure on Americans by the constant advertisements about fast food. Comparison of both documentaries From the information given above about the documentaries in question the first thing that is important to note is the fact that Triumph of the Will was an idea suggested by Adolf Hitler whereas, Super size Me was the idea of an ordinary American filmmaker Morgan Spurlock. This is an important fact to be taken into consideration because eventually the ideology and aim intended by Adolf Hitler and Morgan Spurlock is what will ‘direct the ideas reflected in the documentary, hence, objectivity can be compromised. For reality to be completely present in order to have a real documentary there should be ideally, no draw backs on objectivity in the portrayal of ideas. Adolf Hitler was a Nazi dictator ruling over a powerful country like Germany, his influence and power to pressurise Leni Riefenstahl was unquestionable. On the contrary, Morgan Spurlock was just an independent director. What kind of objectivity and impartiality (two very important subjects to reflect reality) can one expect from a director working under a dictator who controlled the population through fear? The purposes of both documentaries are extreme opposites. Triumph of the Will was intended to be a propaganda political film. Propaganda is after all; a form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position. As opposed toimpartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus possiblylying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further apolitical agenda. In comparison to this, Super size Me was more to do with creating awareness amongst people. Creating awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to beconsciousof events. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer w ithout necessarily implyingunderstanding. This suggests that Spurlock was not aiming at influencing people to completely revolt against fast food but at least beware and conscious of the harmful effects of it. He leaves it upon the audience to make their choice without brainwashing them. The presentation of Triumph of the Will is what documentary forefather, John Grierson would categorise under Poetic mode. Such documentary thrive on a filmmakers aesthetic and subjective visual interpretation of a subject, in addition to it different music is selected for different scenes, just like in the Triumph of Will. By contrast, Super Size me is what Grierson would categorize under participatory mode, in which filmmakers move from behind the camera and appear as subjects in their own work like Spurlock carries out his experiment himself and becomes the main subject of the documentary. The time period in which both documentaries are set in are also crucial points to be noted. Triumph of the Will was set in 1935 in Germany, where people were in the middle of Nazi revolution and political chaos. In contrary to 2004 America where Super Size Me is shot, the taste of the audience has changed dramatically. Audiences of Super Size Me are not only in America but world around, which wasnt the target audience of Triumph of the Will, the latter was meant for only the Germans. To add to this, Germans in 1934 were comparably less educated than the audience of 2004, because one of Germanys major issues at that time was low education. Hence, propaganda movies worked to its full potential as people would not question or form their own opinions; however, the same cannot be expected from liberal thinking people in 2004. The taste of what audience around the world want now is completely different from what was expected in 1930s. Nowadays, reality and truth in the form of controversy is what really gets peoples attention. One may wonder if 1930s audience would have liked to watch real documentary, what if Triumph of the Will was to include scenes from the concentration camps, how would have the audience responded to the documentary? Lastly, editing plays a big role in representing reality. The camera can capture all the truth there is to be captured, but the audience eventually see what is presented to them after much chopping done in the editing room. Directors choice of scenes, images and music is what is eventually reflected in the documentary. In other words, only one or a few peoples choice or ideology is selected and presented to the audience. The directors selection does not necessarily have to reflect the reality. Therefore, how is reality ever represented in documentaries? Conclusion Bibiolography:  · Stella Bruzzi, New Documentary: A critical Introduction, Routledge, 2000  · Paul Ward, Documentary: The margins of reality, Wallflower Press, 2005  · Bill Nichols, Introduction to Documentary, Indiana University press, 2001  · Michael Renov , Theorizing Documentary, Routledge, 1993 * Lee, J., 2008-08-06Propaganda Techniques in Early Documentary Films: An In-depth Analysis with Seven DevicesPaper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Marriott Downtown, Chicago, ILOnline.2009-05-23from * Henrik Juel, Defining Documentary Film, * Malene Jorgensen, What is a Documentary? Defining the Characteristics of a Documentary Film,, Sep 11, 2009 * * Jill Godmilow, in conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro, How real is real is the reality in documentary film? * * Helen Abbott, Movie analysis: Nazi ideology in Leni Riefenstahls Triumph of the Will, * Caoimhe Crinigan, Movie analysis: Nazi ideology in Leni Riefenstahls Triumph of the Will, * * * * * * *

Friday, September 20, 2019

Philosophical Basis Of Occupational Therapy

Philosophical Basis Of Occupational Therapy This paper aims to explore the defining of occupational therapy together with its philosophical basis, discussing the relationship between the philosophy of occupational therapy and practice, including the role of the College of Occupational Therapists (COT) and the Health Professions Council (HPC). This paper is going to be structured in essay form, beginning with a discussion of definitions of occupational therapy and the development of occupational therapy as a profession. Also discussed will be the roles of the COT and HPC with regards to occupational therapy training and practice. The HPC is the regulating body of occupational therapists, as well as fourteen other health professions such as speech and language therapists, biomedical scientists and practitioner psychologists. The HPCs primary function is to protect the public by dictating standards which the health professions must meet in both their training and practice (HPC, 2010a). The COT (also referred to as the British Ass ociation of Occupational Therapists or BAOT) is the professional body for occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants in the United Kingdom (COT, 2010b). It is important to define occupational therapy and have a broad knowledge about the profession as there has been a lot of role blurring and ambiguity with other health professions such as physiotherapists (De Wit et al 2006) particularly since occupational therapy gained interest in the area of psychosocial rehabilitation in the late 1980s/early 1990s (Sà ¶derback, 2009). This role blurring means occupational therapy as a profession is in danger of being seen as surplus to health authority requirements. With the current economic climate in a state of uncertainty it has been reported that the Government plans to cut funding to the National Health Service by  £20bn (Borland, 2010). If frontline staff are being cut, allied health professionals who cannot justify and defend their profession are at risk of being seen as expendable. Alternatively, role blurring can also mean occupational therapists are at risk of being utilised as more than one profession, for example a social worker (H olosko Taylor, 2006). The COT website clearly states the need for its members acting as ambassadors of the profession (COT, 2010b) implying the need for justification of occupational therapy is widely felt. This role blurring and ambiguity could be seen as both a cause and effect of the profession lacking a single, clear definition from which all bodies can explain occupational therapy. A single definition that encompassed all merits of the profession could give a clear justification of what therapists do and could be used to support their practice. However, there are many different definitions and newly qualified occupational therapists find it hard to explain to carers what their profession involves (Williams Richards, 2010). The COT itself changes the definition it releases over the years. The current BAOT definition encompasses the ideas of health and wellbeing obtained through occupation (COT, 2010a). This COT definition has no mention of occupations being meaningful or purposeful which is a core concept in occupational therapy. The idea of giving people meaningless tasks is outdated in modern theories so this definition has limitations. The COT (2009a) released a much broader def inition which encompasses a lot more of the theory of occupational therapy and more of the basis in which it is rooted. However, the terms used in this definition are very specific to occupational therapy and if someone outside of the profession were to read it, many of the terms would read as jargon, rendering the definition incomprehensible. On a positive note, this definition does mention fulfilling a persons potential and their quality of life which is an idea central to the philosophy of occupational therapy which many other definitions omit. The Committee of Occupational Therapy for the European Committees (1990) definition talks predominantly of preventing disability and promoting independent function. Even though this definition is fairly broad and encompassing, these two terms rule out a certain number of clients that an occupational therapist could work with. This definition implies that only people whose disability can be prevented and people with the potential to functio n independently would be assisted by occupational therapy. However this is not the case, occupational therapy has been applied to many areas of severe disabilities such as advanced HIV infection (Parutti et al, 2007). Other definitions incorporate ideas of competency and satisfaction (Knecht-Sabres, 2010) analyzing qualities of activities (Larson Von Eye, 2010) and everyday activities and subjective and objective aspects of performance (AOTA, 2002). So with so many differing ideas about what should be in a definition of occupational therapy, what important points should a good definition cover? Reed Sanderson (1999) outlined the criteria a definition should meet in modern occupational therapy. These included the unique feature of occupational therapy, major goals, outcomes, the population served, a summary of the service programmes and the process in which the service is delivered (Reed Sanderson, 1999, pp. 6). One reason occupational therapy may be difficult to define as a profession worldwide is due to the cultural differences. Occupational therapy is important in certain life aspects to a particular population and this may not be generalisable. For example, in Belgium the Fà ©dà ©ration Nationale Belge des Ergothà ©rapeutes (FNBE) has a definition which focuses in part on professional occupation, as well as activities of daily living and leisure (FNBE 2010). The Bangladesh Occupational Therapy Association (BOTA) incorporates the ideas of therapeutic exercise, special equipment and special skills training into its definition (BOTA, 2010). The Occupational Therapy Africa Regional Group (OTARG) is largely focused on the rehabilitation of disabled people in Africa (OTARG, 2010) but has recognised the need to apply culturally correct interventions to their clients dependent on what that specific region requires as many of the countries that are part of OTARG are poverty-stricken and there is a significant lack of resources available (Crouch, 2010). These cultural differences are indicative of the breadth to which occupational therapy can be used yet how it can make finding a single definition for the profession practically impossible to pin down. Finding a definition that utilises all of the concepts inherent in occupational therapy is also difficult due to the fact that the profession is ever changing and evolving. George Barton encapsulated one of the earliest definitions of occupational therapy in its history: OT is the science of instructing and encouraging the sick in such labours as will involve those energies and activities producing a beneficial therapeutic effect. (Barton, 1919, pp.62) Although this definition was over eighty years ago, much of what was in this definition is still applicable to occupational therapy today, however the profession has been through some major transitions since. The foundations were grounded in a number of historical influences such as the arts and crafts movement, the influence of the Quakers and the mental hygiene movement, amongst others (Reed Sanderson, 1999). One of the most influential however was the moral treatment movement, borne out of the humanistic frame of reference which introduced the concept of work having a positive effect on health (Sà ¶derback, 2009). The first paradigm of occupational therapy reapplied the moral treatment ideals in caring for ill and disabled people. The core beliefs of this paradigm focused on the occupational nature of human beings and the interrelationships between the body, mind and environment (Kielhofner, 2009). Some of the core skills and processes of occupational therapy that are used today could have been inherent in the profession since the very first paradigm such as using activities as therapeutic interventions and assessments of the occupational performance of clients (COT, 2009b). In the late 1940s occupational therapy was swept into reductionist ideals and a need for a theoretical rationale. This new paradigm is referred to as the mechanistic paradigm and using the biomedical frame of reference focused largely on what could be measured quantitatively and scientifically, particularly with; the systems in the body, the neuromotor control and muscuoskeletal performance (Kielhofner, 2009). Some core skills of occupational therapy are rooted in the main ideas of the mechanistic paradigm such as enablement and environmental adaptations (COT, 2009b). Certain stages of the process of occupational therapy could have been developed through the beliefs of the mechanistic paradigm too, in particular the assessment stage which involves assessing clients strengths, weaknes ses, environments and support systems. Another stage which could be linked to the mechanistic paradigm is the intervention stage. This involves engaging in activities that have been analysed, graded and sequenced (Larson Von Eye, 2010) which is also a quantitative and reductionist ideal. The scientific aspect of the paradigm did better establish the profession with the World Federation of Occupational Therapists being inaugurated in Stockholm in 1952 (Sà ¶derback, 2009). The mechanistic paradigm, however, lost sight of the origins of occupational therapy; that occupation was central to the profession and that engagement in occupation can be beneficial to health and wellbeing. Mary Reilly, a fundamental figure in the profession in 1962 gave a seminal lecture and definition that was to change the outlook of the profession once again: Man, through the use of his hands, as they are energised by his mind and will, can influence the state of his own health. (Reilly, 1962, pp. 2) This direct quote encapsulates the change that ended the mechanistic paradigm of occupational therapy and recognised the need to return occupation to the centre of occupational therapy (Molineux, 2004). Following the mechanistic paradigm, a new paradigm emerged which Kielhofner (2009) coined the contemporary paradigm. This paradigm is that in which occupational therapy is practiced today. This focuses on the belief that occupation is central to health and wellbeing and the profession should focus on occupational needs and how neuromotor and musculoskeletal limitations affect a clients occupational performance, as opposed to what the limitations are. This paradigm focuses on the interrelationships between a person, their environment and their occupation (Kielhofner, 2009). There are, however, some new ideas that were not inherent in the original paradigm such as the client-centred frame of reference and the use of client-centred practice. In 1919, Barton wrote that the patient cannot be trusted to select his own occupation (Barton, 1919, pp. 20). In the contemporary paradigm, client-centred practice defines the client as having more of a choice and more power in the client-therapist relationship (Sumsion, 2006) and Bartons ideas would not be acceptable. There are three main roles that have been identified as important for occupational therapists; the therapeutic role, the consulting role and the team member role (Sà ¶derback, 2009). These roles are fairly modern ideas that are borne out of the beliefs of the latest paradigm. The COT became a member of the World Federation of Occupational Therapists in 1952 (WFOT, 2010) when it was first set up during the mechanistic paradigm. The role of the COT is to set professional guidelines which occupational therapists and students must adhere to in practice, with regards to service user welfare, provision of the service, personal and professional integrity, competence, continual professional development and developing the evidence base of the profession (COT, 2010a). The HPC state they protect the public by having professional standards and guidelines that must be met by the professions that they govern (HPC, 2010a). They have a register of all of their health professionals which members of the public can check to make sure any professional working with them is registered, qualified and competent (HPC, 2010b). The HPC also deals with all disciplinary matters and has three different committees for dealing with fitness to practise hearings with registered profession als; the conduct and competence committee, the health committee and the investigating committee (HPC 2010c). As well as protecting the public against incompetent practitioners, the guidelines put in place could also be to protect the profession against scrutiny or disrepute. The COT and HPC are an integral part of practising as an occupational therapist and students are provided with their own copy of the COT Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct to read and digest. However, a big problem of the students of occupational therapy and other professions once qualified is the theory/practice divide; a student can have all the theoretical knowledge needed but lack the ability to effectively apply that knowledge to practice. Core areas in occupational therapy that are limited due to a lack of practice experience include client-centred care, enhanced clinical reasoning skills, the development and use of a therapeutic relationship and a deep appreciation of the person, environment and occu pation impact (Knecht-Sabres, 2010). It may be said that this lack of practical experience is due to the strict guidelines of education in the COT. A large body of knowledge has to be understood in order to qualify and register as an occupational therapist. However the COT also have guidelines about how much clinical experience a student needs before they can qualify so they do recognise the need for practice-based learning and incorporate it as much as possible. Once qualified, the COT and HPC guidelines on continual professional development state that a registrant must continue learning and be up to date with policy, guidelines and research. This aims to ensure that practices do not become outdated which would widen the divide between core theory and practice. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (COT, 2010a) being handed out to all students and professionals is a good basis for students to start from before their practice placements, yet it may be hard to practically apply what is in the Code until it is ingrained in ones knowledge of how to apply it in practice. One way suggested in which to bridge the theory and practice divide whilst learning in an institution with limited clinical experience is a good use of reflective practice. Reflecting in action during an intervention as well as reflecting on action (Schà ¶n, 1983) can enhance advanced clinical reasoning skills which would help bridge the divide (Knecht-Sabres, 2010). In conclusion, occupational therapy is a valid and important practice when used in accordance of the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct and the HPC guidelines. These guidelines are in place to safeguard clients and also the therapists themselves against practicing at an incompetent standard. These guidelines make it possible to further, justify and develop the profession and provide a definition or definitions in which to explain occupational therapy. There are, however, a large amount of standards to consider which one can read but will not become ingrained unless returned to repeatedly or learned and used in context. The true benefit of occupational therapy can get lost amongst the standards and guidelines as they can lead to a lack of clinical experience, a lack of reflecting in-action and perhaps issues of client-centred practice. One example is: if a client wants to work on their planned interventions late but it would interrupt with record-keeping due to time restrictions a therapist would have to refuse as record-keeping is an important part of COT guidelines, but this would not be strictly client-centred practice. Also a clients idea of a good quality of life may be different to that of the COT and HPC and it is the responsibility of the therapist to set out guidelines of what is acceptable, regardless of client choice. The profession, as shown in this paper is also ever-evolving and developing. It could be difficult to abide by the standards if the standards themselves are ever-changing. This is where continual professional development is a beneficial practice in overcoming this issue. The COT also sends out free copies of the British Journal of Occupational Therapy and the OT News, enabling all members to keep up to date with modern ideas and research.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Dark They Were And Golden-Eyed Essay -- essays research papers fc

Dark They Were And Golden-Eyed   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Science fiction is a very interesting subject because you never really know for sure if it’s fiction or not. The scientific information contained in these stories makes you think; could this be real? The possibility is always there, in the back of your mind, just lingering around that these concepts could be reality. One day when you hear on the news about something you read in a science fiction novel, or saw in a science fiction movie, you’ll really start thinking about it. Ray Bradbury’s Dark They Were and Golden-Eyed is a great science fiction story to get you thinking about science fiction. I’m going to try and use Bradbury’s story as an example of science fiction as genre. In Dark they Were and Golden-Eyed Bradbury shows you how life might be like if people lived on Mars. He gives the people a reason for going to Mars and then a reason why they must stay there. The people on Mars slowly start to change, their skin turns dark and their eyes begin to be covered with a gold film. None of the human really cared except for one, Harry Bittering. Harry was reluctant to stay since the second he stepped on to Mars. When him and his family got off the rocket and looked around Harry got a cold look on his face, â€Å"What’s wrong?† asked his wife. â€Å"Let’s get back on the rocket.† Said Harry. â€Å"Go back to Earth?† said his wife. â€Å"Yes! Listen!† said Harry (131). Bradbury repeats a lot of words like wind and gold. He said â€Å" The win...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Waiting for the Bus - Original Writing :: Papers

Waiting for the Bus - Original Writing It was about 8 o'clock in the evening, it was been raining for a very long time; the atmosphere around is so miserable; the air is so heavy as if it's filled with lead and the surroundings are dull and lifeless as if it was the darkest corner on earth. A middle aged man with tattoos all over his body smoking a cigar is being interviewed by a female doctor in a psychiatric hospital. While preparing the apparatus, the young lady tells him about the procedure:" This conversation will be recorded, as many others before it, do you understand Peter? Would you like to tell me about your dreams?" In this depressing room, with dull lights, you can only see the still outline of the two people, as if they are mysterious statues sat there staring at each other. After a while the man takes a deep breath and begins to talk."Every night for all the three months that I have been kept here, I have had the same bizarre dream, the screams of which have been waking everyone up at night". There was a pause during which the young psychiatrist was looking desperately into the madman's eyes and him looking away as if ashamed of something. "My dreams get longer each night"- whispered the patient in a distressed voice. The conversation was ended there and then; Peter never said a word until his next meeting with the psychiatrist. Every time they met their chat got them one step closer to the patient's dream. Spring was approaching; the weather gradually began to change from cold and rainy to sunny and cheerful. These were the first few days it has been like this. It was like a new start for Peter; the weather was divine and precious, he could not get enough of it, it seemed like it gave him power and superiority over every one else. As the days grew longer, so did the conversations the psychiatrist and the man had. It was an ordinary day and as usual Peter was having a 5 o'clock

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Ge 1 Fw Format

GE 1 Fieldwork # 2 Pacing and Compass Traverse Objectives: 1. To be able to quickly estimate distances by means of pacing method. 2. To be able to determine directions by means of the magnetic compass. Instruments: Tape, Markers, Range Poles and Pocket Magnetic Compass Procedure: 1. Consider the polygon bounded by the sidewalks around Melchor Hall engineering building. Determine the lengths of the engineering block bounding lines by casually walking at the center of the pavement starting from any of its corners, going in a clockwise direction, until you reach the starting point.Take note of the number of paces that you make for each line. Also, determine their lengths using tape. 2. Determine the magnetic direction of the lines using the magnetic compass. The forward and back bearings must be determined for each line. 3. Make a sketch of the compass traverse indicating the perimeter distances and the direction of lines. Table 2 below indicates the required observed bearings (directio ns) and taped distances. Table2.Observed and Adjusted Bearings of the Compass Traverse OBSERVED BEARINGS LINE TAPED DISTANCE FORWARD BACK 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 4. Compute the relative precision of the pacing method by comparing the perimeter distance estimated by pacing and the perimeter distance determined by taping. Relative Precision (RP) = [Taped Distance (TP) – Paced Distance (PD)]/Taped Distance (TP). Show all necessary computations. The table indicating discrepancy and relative precision is shown in Table 3 below. Table3.Discrepancy and Relative Precision TAPED DISCREPANCY RELATIVE LINE NO. OF PACES PACED DISTANCE DISTANCE (PD-TD) PRECISION 1-2 1 2-3 3-4 4-1 = _____ = ______ 5. Write an individual typed report of this fieldwork in A4 size bond papers. Present properly the required results of the followed procedures, brief discussion of the results and a conclusion. Do not forger to mention your pace factor. 6. Submit individual report on or before 5:00 PM of July 12, 2012. L ate submissions have corresponding penalties. 2 1K

Monday, September 16, 2019

Gym Visit

Visiting Local My Local Gym Every person in the world would like to have a perfect body including myself. In order to have a healthy and a strong body, I would need to consider going to a gym to work out. Before going to the gym I did not knew of what to expect of a gym. Certainly, I would expect a wide selection of equipment available. I would enjoy a well-educated staff who knows everything I would want to know about working out. The Bally Total Fitness that just turned into LA Fitness, is a perfect match for me. I would definitely enjoy working out at the LA Fitness gym. The closest gym to my neighborhood was LA Fitness. This gym has six different club amenities and features. It starts at a reasonable price for working out, a price you cannot deny to become a healthy person. When I entered into LA Fitness I knew to expect a good environment for training and physical activities. At the LA Fitness gym they provide the members with an enormous amount of equipment. Throughout my tour with Monica, the tour instructor, she informed me that there are various amount of duplicity equipment for manageable workouts. For example, some equipment that I seen where treadmills, stationery bicycles, bench press, dung bells, medicine balls etc. All equipment found inside the gym is up to date and easy to handle. The work out machines informs you how to use them and lets you know what parts of your body you will be working out on. The best part of LA Fitness is the helpful trainers that make you lead to your goal. Working out with a personal trainer brings out good benefits to club members. All trainers designed a customized workout plan for each individual member. The workout plan has an ongoing motivation and supporters the member. All LA Fitness member received one hour fitness assessment before going in your own way. Having a trainer helps you work out effectively to attain your goal. Your trainer also shows you personally how the exercise machine is properly used and as well as teaching you the main principal of the workout that it is being performed. For better results for your own health trainers are there to pace you and keep you from not over doing the exercise. You have the opportunity of being inform from a personal trainer to aware you from your strengths and weakness. With a variety of different occupational centers to take advantage. To set a pace and a weekly routine you can choose from various events and relaxation options. You can choose from running in treadmills to relaxing in sauna or swimming your stress away. For comfortable workout you can also join in groups to follow a special routine provided by a trainer. Some group fitness classes that are provided in this facility are kickboxing, yoga, zumba, body conditioning, and cardio jam. Fitness groups are available from 7am through 8:15p. m from Sunday through Saturday. If you have a child and you have your workout routine set to a certain time day care is provided with an additional charge of $10. 00. The day care at LA Fitness has a schedule from Monday-Friday from 8:00 a. m. until 1:00 p. m. and 4:00 p. m. – 9:00 p. m. Saturday 8am until noon. The LA Fitness gym has its operating hours as followed Monday through Thursday from 5 a. . until midnight, Friday from 5 a. m. until 10 p. m. , and Saturday and Sunday from 6 a. m. through 8p. m. To join the gym has different pricing start from $9. 95 for one person for one week with no Initiation fee. No contract needed to get started and you pay as you go. Additional charge for certain amenities, such as racquetball, kids club, personal training, and juice bar. La fitness is a good environme nt to look up to and enjoy being part of with a various amount of different equipment to use and different fitness groups. In conclusion, La Fitness would be a great starting point towards a healthy life style. With having a gym full of new exercise machines and trainers on the side giving you good advice toward your exercise. Trainers will always support and motivate you to attain your healthy goal. After having a good workout you can always help yourself to enjoy the comfortableness of a sauna. The gym would always be open throughout the day and night to help you release some stress. It is an inexpensive opportunity for you to get in shape and start feeling healthy.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Findings in Parthenotes Essay

The reason for the halted development is accounted for by a number of interesting findings that have been reported. This has been termed as genetic imprinting. Normally and naturally, the maternal and paternal genomes have been shown to be epigenetically different, and normal and successful development necessitates both the sets of genomes (Watt, 2007, 554-556). on the other hand, in activated eggs, also called parthenotes, the origin of all the genetic material is maternal, this implies that there is no imprinting from the paternal genome. It is a generally accepted fact that parthenotes do not develop a tropoectoderm neither do they develop any of the primitive endoderm and extraembryonic tissue. Therefore they are not compatible with life; they do not develop to term. They resemble ovarian teratodermoids and comprises only of embryonic tissues (Newman-Smith and Werb, 1995, 2069-2077). Calcium and Parthenotes Release of stored calcium ions in precise pulses plays a major role in egg activation. It is a recognized fact that fluctuations in free ionic Calcium concentration serves as chemical signal. (Rhoton-Vlasak, Lu, Barud, Dewald, and Hammitt, 1996, 793-796). Most cell types contain very similar calcium signaling mechanisms and elements. It appears from findings that calcium signals are apparently ubiquitous (Nanassy, Lee, Javor, and Machaty, 2008, 264-274). They can be demonstrated both in the somatic cell lines and also in the germ cell lines too. In view of this, it can be stated that the development from oocyte to early embryo is a pre determined sequence of events that occur concurrently in a linear and irreversible manner. There is no repetition whatsoever (Susko-Parrish, Leibfried-Rutledge, Northey, Schutzkus, and First, 1994, 729-739). Surprisingly, the context of each calcium signal is different in different set of events. There is thus a high probability that the Calcium ion which serve as signals in the oocytes and also, the embryo mirror changes in the state of the cell. They are the landmarks for monitoring the development of this cell. It can be said to represent the predetermined programmed events. (Wang, Wang, Yu, and Xu, 2008, 292-301). The process has not been completely demystified by science but some evidence points to the fact that Calcium ions function as second messengers in the oocyte cytoplasm. The ions cause the intracellular release of some other stored chemical mediators of this process. (Winston, Johnson, Pickering and Braude, 1991, 904-912). The initial release of the calcium ion would lead to the completion of the second meiotic division. Subsequent quantal releases of calcium ion would start up the process of cleavage. The fine details of the mechanisms involved are still not known. However, there are some pointers to the fact that the quantal Calcium ion release may be timed to be released at regular intervals for several hours. This is necessary for the activation of the egg. (Krivokharchenko et al. , 2003, 829-836). A mechanism is proposed: each timed release activates some steps that follow previous events and this also leads to the activation of subsequent steps processes (Niwa et al. , 2004, 1560-1567). Relation with Cell Cycle The cMos gives room for the continuation of meiosis from its arrested state. Oocytes that are deficient of this factor are readily activated. They are not so dependent on the firm regulation of the ionic Calcium. (Bos-Mikich, Whittingham, and Jones, 1997, 172-179). During, meiosis, a half of all the chromosomes in the second metaphase division are all removed as the second polar body. The other remaining chromosomes remain in the nucleus of the oocyte . the nucleus therefore contains only a half of the genome. The oocyte this carries a haploid nucleus. (Gardner and Davies, 2006, 492-502). As stated above, a discrepancy in the formation of the second polar body, which also translates to halving of the genetic material will lead to the persistence of all the shromosomes that are present in the second metaphase division. This in turn gives rise to a diploid cell. Ozil et al. , 2005, 39-54). (An unfertilized egg differs from a fertilized egg. Since this is a change in the state of the cell, the calcium signal is believed to bring in the changes the cell state. It can be stated as evidenced by the animal models that the calcium signal is sufficiently important in bringing about some or even most of the changes that take place. The other role that the sperm serves aside from triggering the transient calcium flux necessary for fertilization and providing a half of the genome is to make available centrosomes (Taylor and Braude, 1994, 2389-2397). The centrosome is increasingly regarded as the initiator of cell cycle. This action gives room for the duality that is required to divide the cell. The events at fertilization can therefore be viewed as events that are specific for fertilization proper including the ones that are related to the regulation of cell cycle (Gao, Czirr, Chung, Han, and Latham, 2004, 1162-1170). Sperm Incorporation When the sperm is incorporated, the following events occur. The cortical granules are extruded, the microvilli get elongated, superoxides are produced, and overall metabolic ctivity is heightened. The zona reaction that occurs in fertilization occurs due to exocytosis of the cortical granules, and this also develops fertilization envelope. These both arrest the entry of supernumerary sperm (Cibelli , Cunniff, and Vrana, 2006, 117- 135). The series of events are initiated directly by the ionic calcium changes present at fertilization. The subsequent events involve the participation of a variety o f proteins that are in control of the division of both unfertilized eggs and oocytes. (Rho, Wu, Kawarsky, Leibo, and Betteridge, 1998, 885-492). Both the normal cells and the oocytes of the various species have their meiotic division arrested at different points of the cycle. All the primitive germ cells have to produce secondary oocytes in order to mature. To be fertilized. The process involves a meiotic division. (Paffoni et al. , 2007, 77-82). This checkpoint mechanism keeps under surveillance the unattached chromosomes. This does not allow the onset of anaphase until all the chromosomes are securely fastened to the microtubules of the kinetochore. Mos, discussed earlier can influence and bypass this checkpoint mechanism, and this results in maintenance of metaphase arrest before fertilization; biochemically thus preventing degradation of the cyclins (Fulka, Jr, First, Fulka1, and Moor, 1999, 1582-1587). The calcium signal of fertilization appears not to immediately interact with the activity of Mos signaling. Rather, it assumes an alternative pathway that bypasses the checkpoint. It does this by stimulating cyclin degradation. This in turn, is mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated stimulation of cyclin ubiquitination. It goes further to stimulate the proteasome degradation machinery (Whitaker, 2006, 25-88). Germinal Vesicle Breakdown There exists a factor which can be transferred from the mature oocyte to the immature one. This leads to the breaking down of the germinal vesicle. This phenomenon is one of the few observations made that led to the discovery of the CDK/Cyclin Kinases. (Jones, 1998, 7). The female germ line cells grow and differentiate in the ovary, and during this time, they briefly pause within the process of meiosis that again with ovulation of the oocytes. The first stopping point of the oocytes in their cell cycle dues not differ from species to species, however, after fertilization, their second stopping points differ indeed vary (Lee and Campbell, 2006, 691-698). Meiosis is initially arrested at the interphase stage with the nuclear envelope (still intact) the structure that is germinal vesicle in the immature oocytes. This is where the exchange of genetic material occurs. Just as I mitosis, the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1/Cyclin B controls the activities of such intracellular organelles such as the nuclear envelope, spindle apparatus and even the nuclear chromatin. Salamone et al. , 2001, 1761-1768). The With the germinal vesicle breakdown, the activities of the cyclins increase. MAP kinase has a key role to play during meiosis, in addition. MAP kinase maintains the condensation of the chromatin in the interphase that intervenes the two meiotic divisions, where DNA synthesis is suppressed. This provides the cellular and biochemical environment for creation of the mature oocyte that remains haploid (Rogers et al. , 2006, 45-57). Inositol Phosphate The evidence points to a role for the InsP3 signaling system and transient calcium fluxes in the control of GVBD during meiosis. Calcium is a central figure in the control of this process including the fashion in which it progresses. Just as fertilization activates GVBD. (Higgins and Kane, 2003, 111-118). Fertilization calcium responses have been called termed explosions. After the process of fertilization, the oocyte calcium signaling mechanisms revert to a less vigorous mode. Mature follicles spontaneously starts growing as soon as they are removed from the ovarian stroma (Liu, Trimarchi, and Keefe, 2002, 204-210). Moreover, the growing component also becomes expressed on this removal; however, the non viable oocytes will fail to mature. The aforementioned calcium quantal release in exhibited in the mature oocytes, with a frequency of 1 min. this also occurs in growing follicles but the frequency is lower, at 5 min. however, non viable oocytes do not show this quantal relese This implies, cell cycle progression has a link with calcium pulses. (FitzHarris, Larman, Richards, and Carroll, 2005, 4563-4575). It was also demonstrated that immortal stem cells could be manipulated in vitro, providing the opportunity to study early development as well as lineage potential of derived progenitors in

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Marketing Test Questions

1. The promotional mix is the combination of promotional tools used to reach the target market and fulfill the organization's overall goals. a. True b. False 2. When a marketer sends a message to the target market, the marketer must first decode the symbols used. c. True d. False 3. Even though a message is received, it will not necessarily be properly decoded; receivers interpret messages based on their own frames of reference. e. True f. False 4. All promotions are designed to either inform, persuade, or reinforce the target audience. g. True h. False 5.The promotional mix consists of: i. advertising, publicity, direct marketing, and personal selling j. public relations, direct marketing, personal selling, and publicity k. product, promotion, price, and place l. advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations m. advertising, telemarketing, public relations, and sales promotions 6. Which of the following statements about advertising is true? n. The total costs o f advertising are typically low. o. The signs on the outsides of buses and taxis are not a form of advertising. p.The cost per contact in advertising is low. q. Innovative media are not used in advertising. r. Advertising is any form of communication in which the sponsor is identified. 7. Public information (that the company did not pay for) about a company, good, or service appearing in the mass media as a news item is: s. personal selling t. advertising u. mass communications v. publicity w. sales promotion 8. _____ consists of all marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing such as coupons, contests, free samples, and trade shows. x. Sales promotion y. Publicity . Personal Selling {. Advertising |. Sponsorship 9. In 2006, GM unveiled a GM Fuel Price Protection Program that caps the per-gallon price consumers pay for gas at $1. 99 when they purchase select 2006 and 2007 GM full-size utility and mid-size cars. This is an example of _____ designed to stimulate consumer b uying. }. A sales promotion ~. A public relations activity . Advertising . An implicit communication . Personal selling 10. Communication to large audiences, usually through a medium such as television or a newspaper, is called _____ communication. . Feedback-proof Referential . Interpersonal . Mass . Public 11. The communication process consists of: . Message, media, and transmittal . Source, receiver, and channel . Sender, receiver, and message . Encoding, decoding, channel, sender, receiver, noise, and feedback . Comprehension, noise, and feedback 12. _____ is the conversion of the sender's ideas and thoughts into a message. . Decoding . Envelopment . Processing . Development . Encoding 13. _____ is anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows the transmission of information. . Media communication . Feedback Static . Nonpersonal communication . Noise 14. Advertising competes for two things. These two things are: . ________________b. _________________ 15. There are three typ es of Product Advertising. They are: . ________________b. _________________ c. ___________________ 16. _____ sales promotions are targeted toward the ultimate end-user market. . Facilitating . Intermediary . Pull . Consumer . Trade 17. _____ advertising is used to keep a familiar brand name in the public's mind and to refresh the consumers on the brand’s uses, characteristics, and benefits. Advocacy . Pioneer . Reinforcement . Reminder . Comparative 18. In class we briefly talked about an acronym used in discussions about promotions. The acronym, AIDA, stands for: . Attitude-Interest-Demand-Activity . Attention-Interest-Desire-Action . Awareness-Intent-Demand-Action . Avoidance-Interest-Desire-Acceptance . Attitudes-In-Developing-Acquisitions 19. A manufacturer using the _____ promotional strategy focuses its promotional efforts on the consumer. . Reinforcement . Personal selling . Push . Pull . Kinetic 20.Firms that adopt a push promotion strategy focus their message at inte rmediaries in order to get them to carry the product, rather than at the end consumer. . True . False 21. Comparative advertising is: . like a mirror because it compares all negative and positive features of both products . like a shotgun in that it compares multiple features of two products . like a rifle in that it only compares a single benefit or advantage . only used by companies at the highest level of the pyramid of corporate responsibility . sed to compare two or more competing brands on one or more specific attributes. 22. Aston Martin is a common brand of car driven by the British agent James Bond. Aston Martin paid to have its vehicle featured in these movies. This is an example of: . Advertising . A sales promotion . Paid-for public relations . Product placement . Lobbying 23. In a 2008 movie starring the hilarious Jim Carrey, Red Bull was reference multiple times. This is another example of _______________ and _________________ is the movie’s title. . Advertising and Dumb and Dumber . Puffery and How the Grinch Stole Christmas Customer deceit and The Cable Guy . Product placement and Yes Man . Product placement and Liar Liar 24. Which of the following is not an element of the marketing mix. . Product . Place . Primary Demand . Promotion . Price 25. One of the purposes of promotion is to stimulate demand. What are they? . __________________b. ____________________ 26. This type of demand focuses on making potential customers aware of the general product category. . __________________ 27. This type of demand focuses on making potential customers aware of specific benefits provided by a particular brand/product. ___________________ 28. Based on the results from a recent study, and posted in an article on cnet. com, advertising revenue from Google for the first 6 months of 2012 exceeded that of print media. According to this study, Google brought in how much revenue from ads for this period? . ___________________ 29. Both advertising and public relations (PR) are types of non-personal communication. However, the main difference is advertising is _____________ whereas PR is ________________. 30. According to the course syllabus, Exam #4 is scheduled for what day? . _____________________

Friday, September 13, 2019

Ethics and Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ethics and Business - Research Paper Example In short, ethical principle differs in different societies. Under such circumstances, it is difficult for a society filled with Muslims and Christians to standardise ethical principles. Business is one area in which ethical principles have relevance. The ultimate objective of many of the business organizations in this world is to make as much as profits possible using all the available means. Such greedy business organizations sacrifice ethical principles in business to generate profits. However, it is difficult for such organizations to survive in the business world in the long run. This is because of the fact that current consumers are valuing and respecting the reputation of the organization more while they take any purchasing decisions. Modern consumers respect organizations which demonstrate their social responsibility. In order to sustain business in the current heavily competitive business world, it is necessary for the organizations to give something back to the community in which they operate. Crane &Matten (2007) pointed out that â€Å"There appears to be good reason to suggest business ethics as a phenomenon, as a subject, but not as an oxymoron† (Crane &Matten, 2007, p.5). Business and ethics are not all contrasting each other. In other words, it is possible to do business in an ethical manner. Business ethics is important in decision making, personal integrity, social responsibility, law etc. This paper analyses the importance of ethics in business. Business Ethics as Ethical Decision Making   One of the fundamental handicaps of business is its misguided tendency to view ethics and business as if they can be treated as separate or separate-able. Business cannot and should not be disentangled from ethics and viewed in isolation any more than operations or marketing can or should be considered without regard for the products or services being inventoried or sold. The economics should not be paramount to ethics in business; if anything, ethic s should be paramount to economics (Elm & Radin, 2012, p.314). Business is part of human life and hence it cannot be viewed in isolation with our social life. In other words, whatever, the ethical principles one may follow in his personal life, should be followed in his professional or business life also. So, whatever the decisions taken in business should be in line with the ethical principles. A business person cannot follow one policy in his personal life and another policy in his business life. It should be noted that most of the parameters we come across in business may come across in our personal life also. Therefore whatever the ethics and morals we follow in our personal life should be followed in business life also. Manpower is one of the major resources needed for business. Unlike machines, man has emotions and feelings. So, a business person cannot treat manpower and machine power in the same manner. He should treat manpower separately and machine power separately. He can not ask an employee to work continuously just like a machine. Same way, in an organization, different employees may have different capabilities. It is difficult for a business person to ask all his employees to demonstrate a particular level of efficiency. In other words, a business person should take decisions based on the circumstances and humanitarian considerations. In short business decisions should be taken based on moral reasoning. â€Å"